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It got buried in News of the Industry. If you were around in , would you also have bumped out Wilbur Wright's first flight as so many newspapers did to carry a man bites dog story? This is the most signif- icant item in this issue. Lauson F. Either way, it'll be very interesting to see just what impact FOR TRAN has made on the hobbyist, industrial and small business communities three years from now.
I don't think it will be very great, but if I'm wrong I'll happily eat my words. I've re- ceived several interesting letters and comments on the series, and soon I hope I can produce an update install- ment. Thomas G. Stockham, Jr. Red Seal CRM I also mentioned that a process had been developed that could remove the voice from the orchestral back- ground.
This is not exactly so. Stockham combined his techniques with those of colleague Neil J. Miller to reproduce the voice with the orchestral accompani- ment removed. This was accomplished by the use of an Openheim-style, homo- morphic vocoder, developed by Miller, which effectively synthesized Caruso's voice based on information pro- cessed from the original acoustic recordings. That should excite you computer music buffs: Caruso and computer singing again after 60 years!
One is that the 10 pF capacitor across the spark gap SG should be rated as capable of with- standing at least volts. Another is that Hitachi has changed the sets so that the more recent ones do not draw current when they are turned off. He is using an extensively modified TVT 1 which has 32 character lines and a video signal of 5 volts. The advantage of large bandwidth becomes notice- able with lines of more than 48 characters.
Our kit also provides dc restoration, while Grant's circuit does not. The advantage is not noticed until one has a video generator which can do graphics or display either white characters on black background or black on white. In this case the aver- age level of the video signal changes drastically, and without dc restoration the brightness of the display will change and the set may even be incapable of syncing properly. We have received orders from several people who thought we produced a kit version of Grant's circuit.
We do not - the only TV modification kit we produce is the TVM, which uses a three-transistor circuit to obtain the performance we consider necessary to satisfy our customers. The board select combination of 74LS08s and a 74LS20 will not work.
Trace a signal through. If any switch is closed to represent a 0, the output of that '08 will be forced low irrespective of the other address input to that ' That low, in turn, will force the output of the '20 high, and the board will be forced into a nonselected condition. But with an '86 in place of the '08, the circuit will properly com- pare the high order bits of the address with the switch and give with a boardselect when the address and the switch match.
Or looking at the XOR another way, it can be used as a logic controlled invertor giving a simple switch se- lected Axx-H or Axx-L for feeding to a '20 for address select. I have noted that commercial interface boards prevent a board select until certain timing conditions are met from various con- trol lines and then latch the board select in order to hold it until the operation is complete. This may be due to the fact that while ad- dresses are changing a match may be obtained for only a few nanoseconds maybe tens or hundreds with a MOS CPU which would cause false board selects and perhaps system bugs when the board responds.
Gotta make sure the addresses are good be- fore the select compare is performed. Otherwise there is a good chance for initi- ation of a board action or response on transient gar- bage. As Mr. Smith says, there are several ways to generate the board select. Gerald N. Johnson, P. Ames IA In reply to Dr. Johnson's letter, it is indeed correct that the 74LS08 will not work as shown in Fig.
This was a mistake on my part which, unfortunately, was not noticed until the article was already in print. Johnson is correct in noting that this should have been a 74LS Most of my own designs as well as many commercial designs use packaged comparators for this function, such as DM, etc. As for the false board se- lects, there is no problem with Fig. In static memories such as the types this in itself causes no detrimental action.
These gating signals are derived from the 80 80 A control signals, and by referring to an Intel or any other manufacturer's data sheet it will be seen that DBIN and WRT never change when the address lines are unstable. The protect and unprotect functions from the front panel are enabled only when the Altair is halted, in which case the address line will be stable set to the examine address with the CPU "hung-up" in Ml and T2.
A point to keep in mind is that each computer system has bus timing requirements be it mini, micro, or other- wise which must be ad- hered to in order to assure glitch-free operation. The logic shown in Fig. Michael L. Smith St. Louis MO Robots? I finally got caught up, just started reading KB 6. Concerning Mr. Prud- homme's nice article on the multiplexed scope adapter, shouldn't the designer of the circuit, C. Pepper, be given mention for his design photocopy enclosed?
Tom Scott's review on "Build your own Robot" was enough to make me order the book. I don't know how many other machine-happy people there are out there, but this book may be just the impetus I need to build something I've been thinking about and even making mental designs for for 20 years.
As an aside, Tom mentions an article of which I would appreciate a copy if anyone can accommodate me by one Robert Rossum. Couple that fact with the apparent failure of their simple analog computer in the late '50s, and one can't help but wish them success.
After all, if this effort flops, you won't even be able to safely say the word "com- Heath's original entry into the field computer from the '50s. How many do you think it will be? You better believe Heath is thinking in large quantities! Lou Frenzel, Director of Computer Products, said that he per- sonally feels the market will grow to over , in the next few years.
After several million PETs, Texas Instru- ments, and Realistic home computers have been sold, it's quite conceivable that the hobbyist ranks will swell to that number. Needless to say, Heath is planning on getting their share of that chunk. The engineering effort which Heath put into the development of their com- puter systems is the largest the company has ever undertaken for any prod- puter" around Heath for the next hundred years!
Everybody and his brother has been speculating for the last two years as to what processor Heath would wind up using. I, for one, never would have thought they would go with three different chips! It does look like they have all their bases covered though.
Although there is one I'm not too sure about. That's the one I'm not too sure about. Heath's H-9 Video Terminal. Some of the peripherals they have available now others are in the works include: a video terminal the H-9 which has an 80 character by 12 line format, optional format selection, cursor control, batch transmit and plot mode.
I loved the smooth feel of the keyboard and everything about the unit except that it doesn't offer lower case characters. Now for the H-8 It has the feel and look of quality I would expect from Heath. The front panel consists of seven-segment displays for octal readout of data and addresses with an octal keypad used for enter- ing data. The Heath engi- neers definitely took the right approach by using a keyboard for data entry instead of a row of switches. When you stop and consider the ease of entering data via the former method, com- pared to the latter, it's really the only one which 16 The LSI-1 1 in a new cabinet.
Some of the "feel of quality" I experi- enced was, I'm sure, a result of the audio response pro- vided by the computer's monitor program whenever a key is depressed. The engineers had some rather strong feelings regarding their choice of octal over hexadecimal. They didn't even want to acknowledge the fact there was such a thing as hexadecimal! No big thing, though.
The instruction set lends itself more naturally to octal than to hex anyway. I use the hex version of this handy slide-rule card for my Imsai. I'm hoping we can get those results and include them in an update of the article Tom and Phil are currently putting to- gether. I honestly don't know where the H-l 1 LSI-1 1 is going to go. DEC certainly hasn't sold very many of them to the hobbyist com- munity. My biggest problem is that I can't think of that many applications outside of "larger" small business systems which would actually dictate the use of an LSI-1 1 over an based machine.
Heath's third processor is going to be a based trainer unit Model ET They have plans to develop extensive home- study courses around it. At the end of a line, the presence or absence of this space depends on the interpreter used. In some cases the dashes will appear with spaces in between. At least one interpreter we know of produces two spaces between dashes. Some interpreters provide a statement to produce multiple character output. These are very convenient when printing headers and doing graphics.
A sample program illustrates will be a lot of fun. Word will be forthcoming on availability and what it will cost. Oops, what's this? I just noticed the keypad on that unit. Looks like some- one at Heath believes in hex after all! The training program that Heath is putting to- gether for the people in their 47 centers around the country is a tremendous effort and I'm sure they'll find it very helpful if those folks can speak computerese like the rest of us.
As I said in the beginning. I'm glad they finally arrived on the scene. The key to this trick lies in the use of the base 10 logarithm of the number. For values greater than 1 , the whole number part of the base 10 logarithm gives the number of digits to the left of the decimal less one. Thus, in line 40, the number 1. In the latter case an extra position is created, causing the decimal points to line up. In line 20, all positive fractions are permitted a full TAB to position 7.
The first method is not totally satisfactory for money either. Here is the problem: Write a program that will input a number, say n, then print a list of all prime numbers between 1 and n. A prime number is divisible only by itself and one. Send us this informa- tion and other pertinent details such as which BASIC you are using and the type of output device.
We will use the time measurement more to compare your algorithms solution pro- cedure than to rate your BASIC interpreter. The remainder of the chapter is devoted to problems involving the manipulation of lists of numbers. Chapter four describes the use of functions found in most BASICs as well as the application of user- defined functions. Programs involving computation of prime numbers and greatest common factors are pre- sented to illustrate the use of functions.
The random number function, sorting techniques, and modular arithmetic complete this chapter. Elementary data pro- cessing concepts appear in chapter five where the reader is shown how to tabulate results of surveys and questionnaires. Data for programs in the first portion of the book are either contained in DATA statements or assignment statements. At this point, nearly all of the standard BASIC state- ments have been introduced and the reader should be prepared for the program- ming techniques covered in the remainder of the book.
Chapters 7 through 13 include applications mostly of a mathematical nature. Although the chapters presenting BASIC state- ments need little mathe- matical familiarity, the application chapters require some knowledge of high school algebra for full appreciation. Coan's book offers considerable insight into problem solving in BASIC, and would make a fine addition to your per- sonal computing library. John Arnold Tyler TX from page 6 insurance for purchasers of microcomputers like some stereo stores do for the mer- chandise they sell.
Other things a national association could do are negotiate discounts for its members on magazine advertisements and conven- tion booths, provide cen- tralized legal research on issues of importance to the entire industry and even coordinate and sanction conventions and shows. Perhaps the most impor- tant thing a national associa- tion could provide is clout.
For instance, by statute in California, retailers who perform warranty work for manufacturers providing a written warranty are entitled to reimbursement for their time, including a reasonable profit. I have yet to talk to a store owner who has been paid by a manufac- turer for providing warranty service.
The California statute provides for treble damages, court costs and attorneys fees if a law suit need be brought. No store owner has yet sued a manu- facturer because of the fear that if they do the manu- facturer will no longer sell to them. However, if the association organizes a class action, the manufacturer can't take punitive action against all stores in Cali- fornia. More on warranty in a later Forum. Clout can also be used against man- ufacturers who fail to fill orders or who sell a "com- plete system" without actually having produced one of the components.
The implications for the cus- tomer are obvious. The previous discussion only points up some of the potential services which a national association of corh- puter store owners could provide. I'm sure store 18 owners could think of plenty more. I am also sure some of my suggestions are not viable for one reason or another. So be it. The ser- vices to be provided should be dictated by the associa- tion members and no one else.
Getting The Ball Rolling Actually, the ball is already rolling. In conjunc- tion with the National Com- puter Conference in June, , Portia Isaacson, the Conference Chairperson and a computer store owner, arranged for a meet- ing of store owners. At that meeting, chaired by Ray Borrill of the Data Domain, and attended by thirty to forty store owners, I presented a proposal for the formation of a com- puter retailers' association.
My proposal consisted of the purposes and services discussed above along with a proposed budget and by- laws. As I see it, such an organization would be a nonprofit corporation whose officers and directors would be store owners. Its day-to-day activities would be managed by a full or part-time executive director. The proposal was gen- erally well received. Of course, not everyone there agreed that all the proposed services were desired and others were suggested.
But everyone agreed it would be a very good idea to form such an association. As usual with these types of meetings, there was a lot of constructive talk but not much action. The forma- tional stages in the develop- ment of national associa- tions can be a vicious circle. It takes people, committees and money to get them going, but most people don't want to commit their time or money until the organization comes into being.
For that reason I proposed the following plan of action. All store owners who are interested in SOFTWARE All programs include: Complete assembler source listing, sample output, hex dump, sorted symbol table, plus com- plete instructions and thorough documentation.
Text Editing System. The best text editor available for microprocessors. Many options, including sorted symbol table. Space Voyage. TSC's famous Star Trek program now available for All of the standard features including double down and splitting pairs! An exciting space simulation program requiring only 2K. Finally, a reasonably priced disassembler — including source. No obligation and no time valued cards to return.
Discounts offered. Check your dealer! BOX W. If you want to see my proposal and comment on that, please write me for a copy. On November 30, , I will prepare a report for all who have contributed to the Trust Account. If twenty persons respond it takes twenty members to form a trade association in Cali- fornia the report will consist of a list of contribu- tors, a set of revised proposed by-laws and a ballot for choosing members of a committee to finalize the articles of incorporation and by-laws.
The committee members will probably also serve as the initial board of directors. The Trust Account will be turned over to the committee to get the association formed and underway. So, store owner, you don't stand to lose a cent. Like I said the XYL is the chancellor of the exchequer around here and as a banker, she doesn't miss a trick when it comes to money. It was her sugges- tion to make the Trust Account an interest bearing account. Don't miss out on the opportunity to have the association plaque displayed in your store window state "Charter Member.
They can have an association too, you know. I assure you we are most active, and I have no hesita- tion to say that you will be greatly pleased with what's coming. An announcement will be made prior to our shipping date, so please be patient with us. Nurse: "Your letter in catalog reassures me that we shall soon see the day when any Heathkit using digital circuitry can 19 easily be linked into a home computer system. This will make possible such applica- tions as computerized weather forecasting using Heathkits to measure time, temperature, and wind speed and direction.
We shall also have computers linked together through Heathkit radios and tele- phone dialers displaying information by direct video input to Heathkit TV. The family dictionary recognizes "forum" as "a medium of open discussion. Do you plan to get one? Why or why not?
Which Heath system do you prefer and why? What do you like and dislike about Heath's initial entries into the computer kit field? What would you like to see them do in the future? Or maybe there are questions you'd like other reader's help with. Scottsdale Rd. Interbank No. Broadway Tucson, Az. Robert Rossum, huh? For those who may turn up their noses at robots and mechanical men, let me point out that most soci- eties build their base of power on many kinds one being slaves, or servants, or machines , and our next big leap may be due to the development of a practical robot.
I'd love to see some kind of concentration in KB on all those things necessary to robots, i. Finally there is a most important need good press. Non-tech- nical people I have talked to about this make no bones about the fact that they are distrustful and downright frightened of artificial in- telligence. Why haven't we seen micros on the popular TV shows, and not as antagonists but as heroes?
Science has had a hard time since Hollywood's version of Frankenstein, and now it's Proteus attacking the promise of technology. To those in power, please present a more rational and informative view to the public about these new tools. They may be our sal- vation.
So much for philosophy and all that, carry on the good work. Pepper's name should have been mentioned in the article's references. He was not the designer, however. His article dealt with a modification of the circuit.
With regard to material on robots It does seem to be going to Byte and 20 Interface Age which is okay. If three magazines were concentrating on the subject I think that would be a bit much. I've heard a lot of pros and cons about being a member of Decus. The pro side points out that this enables you to get the huge catalog of programs which are available very in- expensively. The con people say yes, you get the catalog, but when you start looking for practical programs they aren't there.
How many people really want a pro- gram to calculate the change in weight of the Great Pyra- mid of Giza when the moon passes overhead? That is an exaggeration, obviously, but I think that all Kilobaud readers would like to have some practical advice on the subject.
There is a lot to be said for being able to get help with your system from a nearby store. The Heath systems look very attractive. The paper tape system has been needed by many hobbyists, and should soon be inter- faced with all of the popular systems.
We should be run- ning a lot of interesting articles. Kilobaud Users Groups If you've worked up any information which you think others using your system might need, why not send it in for inclusion in a Users Group section of the magazine. Articles Needed There is so much to write about it is difficult to start with a list. How about an article on starting a com- puter store? We still need a comparison of the many cassette systems Has anyone some good ideas on improving the S bus setup?
He brought me the latest in calculators, just released the day before his trip. This calculator has a touch pad for the numbers which does not move. Every time you press a number there is a little musical tone to let you know you've entered the number. The calculator has a memory function, square root, etc. The readout is liquid crystal and it works like a charm. It is a lot of fun sporting a fantastic toy like this.
I can see a terminal built along the same general line with a liquid crystal display instead of a television set or CRT. The keyboard will work just fine for most people for casual com- puting. Office type com- puters will want to use the old-fashioned movable keys which are better for trained typists. That musical tone helps a lot. Thus we may see a ter- minal that looks more like a hard cover book. The cover would open up to show the liquid crystal display LCD , and the display generator chip and a couple of pages of memory would be under the flat keyboard.
With bat- teries it might be only a half inch thick. Would we connect to the computer by wires, by a UHF radio link, or by a little plug-in glass "wire"? How much would a terminal like that cost? Put me down for a dozen. Just about an hour south of Boston is one of the most famous vacation spots in the country: Cape Cod. Here you'll find fantastic sea- food, hundreds of motels and some of the best shop- ping in the country. You might even want to put in some beach time — the Atlantic Ocean is just right at this time of the year.
To the north, also about an hour away, is New Hamp- shire. It's another hour up to the White Mountains — one of the most beautiful parts of the entire country. You'll want to see The Flume. You'll want to take a ride up the first North American aerial tramway on Canon Mountain.
The scenery is breathtaking. A little further on you can drive the Toll Road up Mount Wash- ington — a drive you won't forget. That's even more breathtaking. If you head up Route 95 instead of 93, you'll soon find yourself in Maine. The little coastal villages are wonderful to visit. Desert Island. For heaven's sake don't miss the afternoon tea in the park. That's worth the trip. You'll find the last week of August a great time to vacation. Robert Brehm Sherman Ave. MenloPark CA There comes a time in every computer hobby- ist's life, after he has put his computer kit together and before he has invented the software program to control the world, when he has to choose an ASCII keyboard to talk with his digital creation.
This article is written to help him make this momentous decision by describing an inexpensive, yet versatile, ASCII keyboard kit which features both parallel and serial output in standard TTL and RSC formats. After reading this article, the com- puter hobbyist can purchase the kit or apply the ideas to any keyswitch assembly and convert it to an ASCII key- board for use with his com- puter.
The construction tech- nique, theory of operation, computer interfacing and troubleshooting ideas describ- ed in the technical manual provide a foundation that the computer hobbyist can use to build a flexible, inexpensive keyboard. This article presents excerpts from the manual in the hope that the information will help the hobbyist increase his technical understanding of keyboards in addition to pro- viding him with practical information for building ASCII keyboards based on ROM encoders.
This pin chip contains all the logic needed to encode single-pole single- throw switch enclosures into a standard USASCII seven-bit code plus parity. The ROM also features strobe polarity selection, two-key rollover, keyboard debounce and static charge protection of all input and output terminals. In addition to the ROM, other circuitry incorporated into the keyboard design provides parallel output and simultaneous serial output for driving a cassette recorder or other serial device. Both latched and unlatched strobes are available with either positive-going or negative- going logic which enables the keyboard to be connected to virtually any computer and provide full handshaking cap- ability.
Other standard features of the circuit to be described include the following: elec- tronic shift lock and unlock; odd or even parity selection; uppercase only or upper and lower case operation; two key rollover, N-key lockout; four modes: control, shift, normal, user-defined; repeat circuit that works in any mode; fully buffered outputs for high drive capability and ROM protection; one piece molded plastic keyswitch assembly for keyboard rigidity; pre- mium grade double-sided plated-through PCB; ample power supply bypassing; sockets for all ICs; serial interface 10 cps or 30 cps standard with TTL output positive or negative logic , RSC output, and 12 V 22 Build Your Own ASCII Keyboard.
These supplies should be well regulated and should be free of transients. Parts Selection There are several ways to build a keyboard around the KR encoder chip depending upon where you want to start. If you start from scratch with only the ROM, you have to gather together all the other ICs, the resistors, capacitors, and any other components.
More important, you must find a keyboard which has the need- ed keyswitches. Then, after all the parts are gathered, you have to wire it up and hope that it works. With the information given here, a competent electronics tech- nician can probably accomplish this task without too much trouble.
Since the parts used in the design are usually readily available and the keyswitch assembly is sold by many surplus stores, this approach is certainly one to consider if you require a custom keyboard and have the time to gather and assemble the parts. A second, more realistic, approach is to order the AK-1 kit from Microtronics.
The advantages are many. First, you only buy the parts needed for your configura- tion. You also get resistors and capacitors that are chosen specifically for the physical and electrical requirements of this circuit layout. In addition, you get a premium double-sided, plated-through printed circuit board which eliminates most of the point-to-point wiring found in many home brew design. Moreover, you deal with only one supplier who specializes in serving the computer hobbyist.
A complete schematic and parts list for the AK-1 is shown in Fig. Afunctional block diagram consisting of all of their circuits is shown in Fig. Refer to this diagram and the schematic in Fig. In addition, external control is provided for even or odd parity selection. Diode D1 D2 Value uF. ASCII keyboard schematic diagram. Each Xj, Yj switch can generate three different codes depending upon the voltages present on the shift S and control C inputs.
Mode selection logic is shown in Fig. Unlike the shift circuit, the control mode requires the continuous depression of the control key. Shift circuit: The AK-1 features an electronic shift lock circuit. It is not necessary to hold down the shift key to obtain upper case operation.
All you have to do is tap the shift lock key. To revert to lower case operation just tap the shift key. If you want to shift for only one character, just hold the shift key down for that character. Strobe circuit: The strobe circuitry used in the AK-1 allows maximum flexibility in choosing a strobe pulse that is compatible with your micro- computer. Both unlatched and latched strobes are provided which may have either positive-going or nega- tive-going logic.
The unlatched strobe is present as long as the key is depressed; the latched strobe is present after the key is depressed until it is reset by the com- puter. Each new strobe pulse will set the latch after it has been reset. After each character is read by the computer, it should reset the latch in order to recognize the next strobe from the next character. AK-1 functional block diagram. Repeat Circuit: The repeat circuit consists of two func- tions, the timing and the clocked repeat section.
The timer is a wired for a stable operation at approx- imately five characters per second. Higher or lower speeds may be obtained by changing resistors R9 and R However, the repeat clock speed must be less than or equal to the serial output clock speed, if it is used, in order to prevent data over- run. Clock pulses are fed into pin 11 of IC4 which is hard- wired to provide a logic low Q output when the repeat key is not depressed.
When the repeat key is depressed or released, the D flip-flop ensures that the repeat clock pulses always end on a level transition rather than during the pulse, thus providing timing independence of the repeat key and a predictable number of repeated char- acters. It provides keyboard users the option of using serial inter- face through two wires sig- nal, ground rather than nine wires eight parallel output, ground to their computer.
It also gives the capability of simultaneous parallel and serial output which allows one keyboard to input data to the computer and simul- taneously input data to a cassette via a cassette inter- face. The timer is set to Hz for 10 cps or Hz for 30 cps. A ten-turn potentiometer is provided to adjust the fre- quency to that used by your serial interface. When a key is de- pressed, the strobe pulse sets IC9B, thus forcing Q, or pin 9 of IC9B to remain high for the start of the serial bit stream.
Mode selection logic. Keyboard input subrou- cycle width, since the strobe pulse can arrive at any time with respect to the beginning of the clock cycle. Con- sequently this output 1 is probably a short bit and is used to absorb the difference between clock timing and the instant the strobe is detected. Therefore, during the next clock pulse a space or logic is transmitted signifying the start of the serial character.
The rest of the code, loaded into IC7 during the strobe, will follow in sequen- tial order. The parity bit is hardwired to be high at all times. After these 8 bits, 2 logic 1s are transmitted sig- nifying the end of the character.
Until the next strobe pulse, the output is held in the mark position logic 1. Consequently all we have to do is provide a logic level shifter to do the voltage changes. The versatile op amp performs these functions nicely. The output of IC9B is Q, which is low for mark.
Either serial output may be selected via jumper J3. In fact, both serial outputs may be used simultaneously if you have the capabilities to utilize them. Thus providing three simultaneous outputs from the keyboard! Jumper J4 selects positive or negative logic for the serial TTL output.
A 1 uF capacitor is provided on the output for transient suppres- sion -and high frequency smoothing. The five volt regulator utilizes a or T-5 voltage regulator rated at 1 Amp. Since the fully loaded keyboard draws only mA at 5 volts, this regulator is well within its ratings.
Two input capacitors are included on the input for regulator stability and decoupling. The output capacitor helps tran- sient response. During standby, all inputs will be high and consequently all LEDswill be lit. It is very interesting to watch the parity bit change as the code changes. With even parity, you should always have an even number of LEDs lit and with odd parity an odd number should be lit in the upper and lower case mode.
Computer Interfacing Interfacing the AK-1 to your microcomputer should be very easy due to the flex- ibility of the interface circuitry. If your com- puter programs require nega- tive logic, it is an easy matter to complement the ASCII character via software to obtain this result.
This means that the data is valid on the output lines only as long as the strobe or data available signal is valid. In either case, the status bit is set by the strobe from the keyboard. If you do have an on board latch or flip- flop , then you can use the unlatched strobe from the keyboard.
Choose the appropriate strobe by placing jumper J1 to the appropriate hole. Program first checks keyboard status bit for a 1 value, then reads value into Register A. Serial Interface'. If, on the other hand, you use a parallel inter- face to your microcomputer, you can use the serial inter- face to drive any of the popular cassette interface boards on the market today.
In either case, you have to properly set the timing of the serial bit stream. Interfacing serial data to your computer requires several steps. First, you must determine what voltage levels your serial port requires. For either voltage level, no strobe is needed since it is part of the serial data stream. After the voltage level requirements have been determined, the speed must be chosen. The AK-1 can be wired for either ten charac- ters per second teletype- writer speed or for 30 cps.
Before you do this, check that you have the proper timing resistor for the speed you have chosen. The correct method to adjust the frequency utilizes a frequency counter or trigger- ed oscilloscope. If you have a frequency counter, adjust the timer output pin 3 for Hz for 10 cps or Hz for 30 cps. If you have a triggered scope, press any key, measure the serial out- put and adjust one ASCII bit for 9.
The software given in Fig. In order to familiarize yourself with the required steps in the program, a pro- gram flowchart is shown in Fig. Note that the sample program to be illustrated doesn't use hardwired inter- rupts but incorporates soft- ware interrupts as do the majority of computer hobbyist installations. The code for either serial or parallel interface is the same as shown in Fig.
The program in Fig. Key KR It has also assumed that the data port address was 03 and the status port address was 02 with the strobe or data available bit being B7. Upper Case Only Section Many AK-1 users will undoubtedly want to use the upper case only option which is jumper selectable on all standard keyboards. There you have it. A complete description of a keyboard with many options that should provide a versatile and flexible keyboard for hobbyist applications.
You can now make the momen- tous keyboard decision and start to enjoy your electronic creation. Happy computing! And because it is a standalone memory system, you've got the advantage of greater flexibility not ordinarily available from add-in memory. When ordering, you must specify the bus architecture. A plugcard and cable will be furnished for the particular bus architecture you specify. Switch- able memory protect is in increments of 8K bytes on 8K boundaries. Psuedo-static operation: on board refresh clock-generator provides processor independent refresh with no wait states.
The NS worst case access time enhances high speed operation. Please allow 3 to 6 weeks for delivery. Mastercharge and BankAmericard are accepted. One Card. One low price. Only from the Digital Group. Now, on only one fully static card, the Digital Group has squeezed in a whopping 32K of memory. Which, with a little quick addition, means a full 64K architecture now requires only 2 boards instead of 8. That's a 4-to-l space reduction All this and one low price, too.
It just may be the best news of all. Now that's worth remembering. It's substantially less than our equivalent as- sembled 8K board prices. Please note: We're initially offer- ing this 32K board assembled only, but kit versions will soon be available, too — at even lower prices. Here's what you get. All of our current CPUs will operate at full -rated speed. Then all you have to remember is to mail it in.
Name Address. I'm already on your mailing list, but I need the memory spec sheet desperately. Lawrence R. Zeitlin The Ultimate Personal Computer Forget learning the multiplication tables, compress college attendance into an afternoon, and master a new language in hours.
Dick Tracy would have loved it. Zeitlin has been involved with computing machinery since he was awed and partly deafened by the Aiken Mark II at Harvard in the late '40s. Subsequent exposures were to the pin-programmed Burroughs , the Bendix G15, the IBM , and a very forgettable group of analog machines, among others. His experience with computers of ever-decreasing size and cost provided the premise for this article.
For several weeks last winter, I conducted an informal survey among my colleagues and graduate students, posing the question: "How would you make use of a small, portable com- puter, capable of storing and retrieving information, per- forming mathematical cal- culations, and making logical Reprinted with permission of Datamation R , Copyright by Technical Publishing Company, Greenwich, Connecticut They would use it to store and recall names, addresses, phone numbers, and birthdays.
They would load it with the factual con- tent of course work or job related information, for retrieval as needed. This last proposed use was expressed with great depth of feeling since the question was posed immediately prior to college examinations; a time in the life of any member of a college community in which information storage and sub- sequent retrieval becomes a matter of great import.
A Matter of Education After reviewing the results of my informal survey, I began to wonder at the feasibility of this last use. Just how much information storage is required of a college student? At a first approximation we may be able to estimate the information storage requirement by assuming that a college education represents the accumulated sum of all the assigned course reading over a period of four years. Let us take Paul Samuel- son's Economics as a repre- sentative textbook.
It con- tains pages, 40 lines per page, with 15 words or 80 character spaces per line, for a total of , words or 2,, characters. If the typical requirement is two such books per course per semester, a college edu- cation represents 64 books; a total of 3.
Neglecting packaging mate- rials and leads, this comes to about 1. A college education there- fore represents 6. A common concern in my survey was the manner in which communication with the hypothesized computer would be accomplished. Most such communication requires the learning of a mechanical skill, keyboard entry, and a special programming lan- guage. My respondents felt that the computer would be of limited usefulness unless they could communicate to the computer as they would to another person in a natural spoken language and receive a similar auditory response.
Let's look at the state of the art in this. I suspect the size is smaller and the accuracy is higher today. Also, English-like query languages for data base access are in active development in software houses throughout the country. For output, synthesizers have been around for some time and are in commercial use in stock quotation de- vices, calculators, and reading devices for the blind. No conceptual breakthroughs are required, merely miniatur- ization.
But, if we are going to communicate in the spoken word, why bother to encode all the characters of text? Why not code phonemes instead? This will cut the storage volume required by almost half. This volume is based on technology representing the current commercial state of the art. Within the last few months, a major semicon- ductor manufacturer has started preproduction runs of magnetic bubble static memories with storage capa- bilities of over 92, bits per chip.
This permits an in- crease in information storage density of These and other new nonvolatile memories use little or no power in the resting mode. If we take advantage of this newest technology, a college edu- cation can be reduced to 0. As Easy as Pulling Teeth This size is small enough to be conveniently implanted in the body, perhaps as a dental inlay or in the space made available by extracting a nonfunctional wisdom tooth.
I wouldn't want anyone to judge this argument on the inlay idea, but the mouth is, in fact, an almost ideal envi- ronment. We tolerate foreign bodies in the mouth quite well. Virtually everyone in the audience has a filling or an inlay, a false tooth, or a piece of bridgework. The 32 phonemes of English can be encoded by a 5-bit code Thus the information con- tent is 6.
Indeed the saliva could act as an electrolyte for a wet cell which generates the power for operation. The only unusual design requirements are that the device be water- proof, shockproof, and nontoxic. Thus obtaining the infor- mation incidental to a college education could be achieved as easily as pulling teeth — and in the same professional office. But, you may well ask, despite the fact that the student receives his diploma with his dental bill, is this really an education?
It is really no more of an education than handing a student an armful of text- books and granting him his degree; but, the latter is a fair characterization of present educational practices, and the inlay wouldn't be much worse. Education, as we conceive of it today, may be con- sidered a communications channel which conveys infor- mation from the printed page to the gray matter of the brain.
Since the communi- cation channel has such a low data rate and the brain's retention process is so in- efficient, a prodigious amount of time must be spent in information transfer. If we assume that a student spends 40 hours a week for 9 months of each academic year reading the 3. An oft-spoken criticism of contemporary education is that so much time is spent in the accumulation of infor- mation, that very little time is available to explore the use of that information.
The direct implantation of data would solve that problem in a single stroke and could allow the educational process to direct itself to the integration and understanding of information rather than the accumulation of facts. In this respect the personal computer represents a potential technological breakthrough in education roughly on a par with the invention of moveable type.
No One Reads the Sky Any- more Aside from purely peda- gogical considerations, the economic implications of a personal computer are stag- gering. As a simplified example, consider my son's grade school. Furthermore, the calculator never makes a mistake — but my son often does. When I expressed my mis- givings at a teacher's con- ference about spending so much valuable educational time and money on rote learning an easily mechaniz- able skill, I was greeted with expressions of shock and disbelief.
No one glanced out of the window to ascertain the position of the sun in the sky. Not so long ago, however, the ability to tell time by the position of the heavenly bodies was also one of the marks of an edu- cated person. But since the personal timepiece evolved into a ubiquitous artifact, telling time by the sky has been deemed a skill appro- priate only for Boy Scouts, along with finding north by the moss on the trees, and building a fire by rubbing two sticks together.
In due time, perhaps in the next year or two, Mickey Mouse on my son's wrist- watch may learn to count on his fingers as well as tell time by moving his hands. So too, after a somewhat longer period, the personal com- puter may become a ubiqui- tous artifact, a part of the natural scheme of things. The overall consequence of this eventuality may well be a change in our normal method of intellectual func- tioning.
The most immediate is the one we have already discussed, providing the data bank of education at all levels of schooling — not the methodology mind you, but the data. Instant Retraining Another, and perhaps equally important, con- sequence will be the possi- bility of instantly changing or updating learned bodies of occupationally relevant data. It has been estimated that the half-life of a technology based job or education is about five years.
That is, five years after learning a job or leaving school, half of what you have learned is obsolete. Retraining our adult work force has become an in- creasingly important prob- lem. If present trends con- tinue, a worker may well have to be retrained four to five times during his working life, with all of the lost time and emotional trauma that such 31 drastic dislocation in life involves.
With the implantable computer it may ultimately be possible to change one's occupation with every visit to the dentist. Perhaps even do- it-yourself preprogrammed memories might be made available in such selected art today or is likely to be so before this decade is out. The technology is here and the economic impetus is positive. Indeed, the personal com- puter capability suggested is not the ultimate individual system but rather an interim step.
The ultimate computer might well be the size of a With the implantable computer it may ultimately be possible to change one's occupation with every visit to the dentist. Along a similar line, the courtroom lawyer might contain his law library in his molar, the tax accountant in his bicuspid. What a godsend for the doctoral student facing oral examinations! On a less esoteric level, the individual contemplating an overseas trip may eschew Berlitz for an implanted foreign language dictionary.
Imagine the effect of ac- quiring 10, words of Chinese in a two hour layover in Hong Kong! The social implications of the implanted computer are equally as profound. Note that human performance is still limited by intelligence and by the ability to use data itself.
When I first started this little paper my tongue was firmly lodged in my cheek. But, come to think of it, everything I have suggested is either within the state of the 32 grain of sand implanted in the brain at birth and as acces- sible to the brain as any other neuron. At the moment I would say that such a device was a practical impossibility. Not a conceptual impossibility, mind you, but a practical one.
I would be willing to bet, however, that perhaps my child, or certainly my grandchild will be spared the difficulty of rote learning the data of a college education by a man-made, aptly named, wisdom tooth. Okay, if not a tooth, then a locket or a wrist computer. Now I'm not seriously recommending that IBM should try to corner the market on dental supplies or that Intel should apply for FDA approval of its mem- ories, but rather that the data processing community should become aware of the long range implications of size and price reduction of computing machinery.
We are in the earliest stages of a tech- nological revolution which will force us to reevaluate that human attribute, the storage, manipulation, and recall of information, and in consequence, the utility of an educational process that pro- vides that information in a most inefficient way. Tempe Byte Shop East N. Byte Shop of Tucson E.
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A com- plete stand-alone system with expanded graphics software for plotting points, vectors and bargraphs on a x addressable grid— in color. Eight independent background and foreground colors. In fact the Compucolor is the only totally integrated system on the mar- ket which includes a color display.
You can also have spe- cial options for the Compucolor right now, including: Mini Disk Drives for extra memory, light pens and a variety of special keyboard features. Compucolor's BASIC is a conversational programming language which uses English- type statements and familiar mathematical notations. It's simple to learn and easy to use, too. Especially when it comes to intricate manipulations or expressing problems more efficiently. The BASIC Interpreter runs in ROM mem- ory and includes 26 statement types, 18 mathematical func- tions, 9 string functions and 7 command types for executing, loading, saving, erasing, con- tinuing, clearing or listing the program currently in core.
Expandable Memory To 64K. The Random Access Main Memory has 8K bytes for screen refresh and scratch pad, 8K bytes for user workspace and room for 16K bytes of additional user work- space. The Compucolor also comes complete with a conve- nient mass storage device, Floppy Tape Memory. It's an 8-track continuous loop tape system, with a Baud rate of and an extra storage capacity of up to K bytes per tape.
My room was broken into. My wallet and the jewelry box are gone. My grandmother's silver chain is safe in the jewellery box. The mechanic lifted the hood and inspected the engine. Carlos painted flames on the bonnet of his sports car. A noun is a word referring to a person, animal, place, thing, feeling or idea e. That chest is very important to some friends of mine. The chest was quite portable, appropriate for nomadic people.
Esta cosa estaba en un cofre en la mesa. That thing was in a chest on the table. Don't you know that the universe is a gigantic chest? First time visitor? Register online. Home Sign In. We offer a number of low-cost full-service management options including, but not limited to: Maintenance and upgrades Property inspections and analysis Financial management Applicant screening Rent collection Tenant relationship management Our experience and responsiveness enables us to continually provide value and service to every property that we manage, while maintaining the comfort, beauty, and safety of each rental property.
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