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Pingback: generic viagra available. Pingback: cialis pills. Pingback: viagra mg. Pingback: sildenafil generic. CO 2 exists in the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites , yet despite its discovery over a decade ago on Ganymede, and five years ago on the Saturnian satellites, its nature is still debated .
On the Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede, the CO 2 that is detected is bound to, or trapped within, the non- ice materials that prevent it from sublimating or otherwise escaping from the surface. On Europa, it resides within both the ice and nonice materials [8,9]. While greater abundances of CO 2 may exist in the interiors of these moons, or small amounts may be continually created through particle bombardment of the surface, the observed CO 2 is only a trace material, with a few hundred molecules responsible for the deepest absorption features and an estimated molar abundance of 0.
Yet its presence may provide essential clues to processes that shape the surfaces of the moon  and potentially key to understanding the composition of potential oceans in the subsurfaces. Previous measurements, using transmission spectroscopy, demonstrated both a compositional and a temperature dependence on the spectral signature of adsorbed CO 2 .
Bidirectional spectroscopy enables detection of lower concentrations of adsorbate on fine-grained materials such as clays due to their large surface area to volume ratios and thus large surface areas that may be covered by adsorbate . All measurements demonstrate that CO 2 adsorbs onto montmorillonite clays, possibly due to its quadrupole moment.
Fundamentals and applications of dry CO 2 cryogenic aerosol for photomask cleaning. There is a dire need for the removal of all printable defects on lithography masks. As the technology node advances, smaller particles need to be efficiently removed from smaller features without any damage or adders. Ultra-pure liquid CO 2 when dispensed through an optimally designed nozzle results in CO 2 clusters that impart the required momentum for defect removal.
Historically nanomachining debris removal has been established with this technique. Several improvements have been incorporated for cleaning of advanced node masks, which has enabled Full Mask Final Clean, a new capability that has been successfully demonstrated. The properties of the CO 2 clusters can be captured utilizing the Phase Doppler Anemometry PDA and effect of varying process and design parameters can be verified.
This capability has been experimentally proven for high aspect ratio SRAFs e. No printed defects larger than 50nm is observed after the CO 2 cleaning. Stability of the cleaning and handling mechanisms has been demonstrated over the last 4. We have developed an improved thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron counting-rate time series data of the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer MONS , optimized to greatly reduce both statistical and systematic uncertainties.
This new data set was applied to study temporal and spatial distributions of the growth, decay, and maximum amount of precipitated CO 2 ice during Martian years MY 26, 27, 28, and For this study, we concentrate on the epithermal counting rate detected using the down-looking prism P1 of MONS, and a combination of the epithermal and thermal counting rate detected by the forward-looking sensor P2 of MONS.
Although the energy range of neutrons detected by P2 covers both the thermal and epithermal range, it is heavily weighted to the thermal range. The most-likely explanation of this drop is that abundances of the non-condensable gases N2 and Ar, are unusually enhanced during MY Movies were also made of maps of the growth and decay of P2 counting rates summed over the first three years of these data.
Careful inspection shows that both the growth and decay in the north were cylindrically symmetric, centered near the geographic north pole. In contrast, both the growth and decay of CO 2 buildup in the south were skewed off the geographic pole to the center of the CO 2 residual cap, and contained a small, but definitely distinct ring-like annular enhancement centered at a latitude of about This arc runs parallel to, and overlays, the very steep drop in altitude from.
CO 2 and CH4 in sea ice from a subarctic fjord under influence of riverine input. The bulk ice [CH4] ranged from 1. This is markedly higher Our study adds to the few existing studies of CH4 and CO 2 in sea ice and concludes that sub-arctic sea can be a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , while being a net source of CH4. Processes related to the freezing and melting of sea ice represents large unknowns It is therefore imperative to assess the consequences of these unknowns through further field campaigns and targeted research under other sea ice conditions at both hemispheres Subglacial carbon processes are of increasing interest as warming induces ice melting and increases fluxes of glacial meltwater into proglacial rivers and the coastal ocean.
Meltwater may serve as an atmospheric source or sink of carbon dioxide CO 2 or methane CH4 , depending on the magnitudes of subglacial organic carbon OC remineralization, which produces CO 2 and CH4, and mineral weathering reactions, which consume CO 2 but not CH4. We report wide variability in dissolved CO 2 and CH4 concentrations at the beginning of the melt season May-June between three sites draining land-terminating glaciers of the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Two sites, located along the Watson River in western Greenland, drain the Isunnguata and Russell Glaciers and contained and ppm CO 2 , respectively. In-situ CO 2 flux measurements indicated that the Isunnguata was a source of atmospheric CO 2 , while the Russell was a sink. Both sites had elevated CH4 concentrations, at and 25 ppm CH4, respectively, suggesting active anaerobic OC remineralization beneath the ice sheet. Dissolved CO 2 and CH4 reached atmospheric equilibrium within 2.
The third site, draining the Kiagtut Sermiat in southern Greenland, had about half atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ppm , but approximately atmospheric CH4 concentrations 2. Downstream CO 2 flux measurements indicated ingassing of CO 2 over the entire km length of the proglacial river. CO 2 undersaturation may be due to more readily weathered lithologies underlying the Kiagtut Sermiat compared to Watson River sites, but low CH4 concentrations also suggest limited contributions of CO 2 and CH4 from OC remineralization.
These results suggest that carbon processing beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet may be more variable than previously recognized. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow. An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed.
Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow. Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process.
Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. Caldera unrest driven by CO 2 -induced drying of the deep hydrothermal system.
Interpreting volcanic unrest is a highly challenging and non-unique problem at calderas, since large hydrothermal systems may either hide or amplify the dynamics of buried magma s. Here we use the exceptional ground displacement and geochemical datasets from the actively degassing Campi Flegrei caldera Southern Italy to show that ambiguities disappear when the thermal evolution of the deep hydrothermal system is accurately tracked.
This resulted in the drying of the base of the hot hydrothermal system, no more buffered along the liquid-vapour equilibrium, and excludes any shallow arrival of new magma, whose abundant steam degassing due to decompression would have restored liquid-vapour equilibrium. The consequent CO 2 -infiltration and progressive heating of the surrounding deforming rock volume cause the build-up of pore pressure in aquifers, and generate the striking temporal symmetry that characterizes the ongoing uplift and the post subsidence, both originated by the same but reversed deformation mechanism.
Supercritical CO 2 extraction of raw propolis and its dry ethanolic extract. Full Text Available Three types of propolis extract were prepared and analyzed with respect to their global extraction yields and with respect to the concentration of the following markers: 3,5-diprenylhydroxycinnamic acid; 3-prenylhydroxycinnamic acid; 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and 4-methoxy-3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone.
The extract EEP ethanolic extract of propolis was obtained by the conventional method from raw propolis using ethanol as solvent. The extracts SFE were obtained by supercritical solvent extraction from the raw propolis using supercritical carbon dioxide sc- CO 2 , with and without the addition of ethanol as a co-solvent. EEP yields of The concentrations of the markers in the different extracts differed as a function of the operational parameters, indicating that the addition of co-solvent and the selectivity of sc- CO 2 could be manipulated so as to obtain extracts with the yields and concentrations of interest.
The most direct method of investigating past variations of the atmospheric CO 2 concentration before , when continuous direct atmospheric CO 2 measurements started, is the analysis of air extracted from suitable ice cores. The DML CO 2 record shows an increase from about to parts per million by volume ppmv between ad and ad and a fairly continuous decrease to a mean value of about ppmv around ad While the new South Pole measurements agree well with DML at the minimum at ad they are on average about 2 ppmv lower during the period ad Published measurements from the coastal high-accumulation site Law Dome are considered as very reliable because of the reproducibility of the measurements, high temporal resolution and an accurate time scale.
Other Antarctic ice cores could not, or only partly, reproduce the pre-industrial measurements from Law Dome. However we should be able to rule out co-variations caused by the same artefact. Two possible effects are discussed, first production of CO 2 by chemical reactions and second diffusion of dissolved air through the ice matrix into the bubbles. While the first effect cannot be totally excluded, comparison of the Law Dome and DML record shows that dissolved air diffusing to bubbles cannot be responsible for the pre-industrial variation.
Therefore, the new record is not a proof of the Law Dome results but the first very strong support from an ice core of the Antarctic plateau. Accurately modelling the intensification of greenhouse gas effects in the polar regions "polar amplification" necessitates a thorough understanding of the geochemical balance between atmospheric, sea ice , and oceanic layers.
Sea ice is highly permeable to CO 2 and therefore represents a major sink of oceanic CO 2 in winter and of atmospheric CO 2 in summer, sinks that are typically either poorly constrained in or fully absent from global climate models. This method involves melting of vacuum-sealed ice cores to evacuate trapped gases to the headspace and sampling the headspace gas with a blunt needle sheathed by a beveled puncturing needle.
A gravity catchment tube prevents input of dangerous levels of liquid water to the Picarro cavity. Subsequent ultrasonic degassing allows for dissolved gas measurement. We are in the process of using this method to sample gases trapped and dissolved in Arctic autumn sea ice cores and atmospheric samples collected during the Polarstern Expedition and during a May field campaign north of Barrow, Alaska.
We additionally employ this method, together with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS , to analyze the transfer of potential biogeochemical signatures of underlying hydrothermal plumes to sea ice. This has particular relevance to Europa and Enceladus, where hypothetical hydrothermal plumes may deliver seafloor chemicals to the overlying ice shell. Hence, we are presently investigating the entrainment of methane and other hydrothermal material in sea ice cores collected along the Gakkel Ridge that may serve as biosignatures of methanogenic organisms in seafloor.
Estimating surface CO 2 fluxes from space-borne CO 2 dry air mole fraction observations using an ensemble Kalman Filter. The day duty cycle of OCO alternates every 16 days between nadir and glint measurements of backscattered solar radiation at short-wave infrared wavelengths.
The EnKF uses an ensemble of states to represent the error covariances to estimate 8-day CO 2 surface fluxes over geographical regions. The observation operator that relates surface CO 2 fluxes to atmospheric distributions of XCO2 includes: a the GEOS-Chem transport model that relates surface fluxes to global 3-D distributions of CO 2 concentrations, which are sampled at the time and location of OCO measurements that are cloud-free and have aerosol optical depths 2 profiles to XCO2, accounting for differences between nadir and glint measurements, and the associated scene-dependent observation errors.
Glint measurements are generally better at constraining ocean CO 2 flux estimates. Nadir XCO2 measurements over the terrestrial tropics are sparse throughout the year because of either clouds or smoke. Glint measurements provide the most effective constraint for estimating tropical terrestrial CO 2 fluxes by accurately sampling fresh continental outflow over neighbouring oceans.
We also present results from sensitivity experiments that investigate how flux estimates change with 1 bias and unbiased errors, 2 alternative duty cycles, 3 measurement density and correlations, 4 the spatial resolution of estimated flux estimates, and 5 reducing the length of the lag window and the.
Dry reforming of methane with CO 2 on an electron-activated iron catalytic bed. A preliminary experimental investigation of dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide, that has been performed on an iron bed activated with an electric current is reported. The reaction, involving an excess of pure methane and carbon dioxide, was performed with and without addition of water vapour, provided by hot water saturation of the gaseous feed.
According to syngas compositions, the electron flow has a dramatic effect on the conversion of both methane and carbon dioxide. It was shown also that hot water saturation of the CO 2 and CH 4 mixture allowed very good conversion, giving a syngas with a composition very close to what was expected from equilibrium calculations. All rights reserved. Sensitivity to ocean acidification parallels natural p CO 2 gradients experienced by Arctic copepods under winter sea ice. The Arctic Ocean already experiences areas of low pH and high CO 2 , and it is expected to be most rapidly affected by future ocean acidification OA.
Copepods comprise the dominant Arctic zooplankton; hence, their responses to OA have important implications for Arctic ecosystems, yet there is little data on their current under- ice winter ecology on which to base future monitoring or make predictions about climate-induced change. Here, we report results from Arctic under- ice investigations of copepod natural distributions associated with late-winter carbonate chemistry environmental data and their response to manipulated p CO 2 conditions OA exposures.
Our data reveal that species and life stage sensitivities to manipulated OA conditions were correlated with their vertical migration behavior and with their natural exposures to different p CO 2 ranges. Vertically migrating adult Calanus spp. Oithona similis, which remained in the surface waters and experienced a p CO 2 range of CO 2 experiments.
These results support the relatively untested hypothesis that the natural range of p CO 2 experienced by an organism determines its sensitivity to future OA and highlight that the globally important copepod species, Oithona spp. Ice rink installations working with natural refrigerants; Kunst-ijsbanen met NH3 en CO 2 , natuurlijker kan het niet. In a growing number of countries it is not allowed anymore to use big amounts of ammonia in areas occupied by many people.
So new skating halls with direct ammonia systems are not built anymore although those systems are the best solution, concerning ice quality and energy consumption. During the last years CO 2 has proven itself not only as an excellent refrigerant but also as a very usable secondary refrigerant in stead of brines, etc. Efficiency of radial transport of ices in protoplanetary disks probed with infrared observations: the case of CO 2.
Radial transport of icy solid material from the cold outer disk to the warm inner disk is thought to be important for planet formation. However, the efficiency at which this happens is currently unconstrained. Efficient radial transport of icy dust grains could significantly alter the composition of the gas in the inner disk, enhancing the gas-phase abundances of the major ice constituents such as H2O and CO 2.
Our aim is to model the gaseous CO 2 abundance in the inner disk and use this to probe the efficiency of icy dust transport in a viscous disk. From the model predictions, infrared CO 2 spectra are simulated and features that could be tracers of icy CO 2 , and thus dust, radial transport efficiency are investigated.
Methods: We have developed a 1D viscous disk model that includes gas accretion and gas diffusion as well as a description for grain growth and grain transport. Results: CO 2 ice sublimating at the iceline increases the gaseous CO 2 abundance to levels equal to the CO 2 ice abundance of , which is three orders of magnitude more than the gaseous CO 2 abundances of observed by Spitzer.
Grain growth and radial drift increase the rate at which CO 2 is transported over the iceline and thus the gaseous CO 2 abundance, further exacerbating the problem. In the case without radial drift, a CO 2 destruction rate of at least s-1 or a destruction timescale of at most yr is needed to reconcile model prediction with observations.
This rate is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the fastest destruction rate included in chemical databases. A range of potential physical mechanisms to explain the low observed CO 2 abundances are discussed. Conclusions: We conclude that transport processes in disks can have.
Noble metal-based catalysts can effectively assist DRM reaction, however they are not economically viable. Alternatively, non-noble based catalysts have been studied so far, and supported Ni catalysts have been considered as a promising candidate for DRM catalyst. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the appropriate choice of metal-oxide supports can address this issue since the chemical and physical of metal-oxide supports can prevent coke formation and stabilize the small Ni nanoparticles under harsh conditions of DRM operation.
This mini-review covers the recent scientific findings on the development of supported Ni catalysts for DRM reaction, including the synthetic methods of supported Ni nanoparticles with high sintering resistance. Dynamic ikaite production and dissolution in sea ice - control by temperature, salinity and p CO 2 conditions.
It is only found in a metastable state, and decomposes rapidly once removed from near-freezing water. Recently, ikaite crystals have been found in sea ice and it has been suggested that their precipitation may play an important role in air-sea CO 2 exchange in ice -covered seas.
Little is known, however, of the spatial and temporal dynamics of ikaite in sea ice. Here we present evidence for highly dynamic ikaite precipitation and dissolution in sea ice grown at an out-door pool of the Sea- ice Environmental Research Facility SERF. Manual removal of the snow cover allowed the sea ice to cool and brine salinities to increase, resulting in rapid ikaite precipitation. The modeled FREZCHEM ikaite concentrations were in the same order of magnitude as observations and suggest that ikaite concentration in sea ice increase with decreasing temperatures.
Thus, varying snow conditions may play a key role in ikaite precipitation and dissolution in sea ice. This will have implications for CO 2 exchange with the atmosphere and ocean. Additions and corrections to the absorption coefficients of CO 2 ice : Applications to the Martian south polar cap.
In comparing these calculated spectra to spectra of frosts observed in the laboratory and on the surface of Mars, problems in the optical constants presented by Warren became apparent. Absorption coefficients for CO 2 ice have been derived using laboratory reflectance measurements and the Hapke model for calculating diffuse reflectance. This provides approximate values in regions where no data were previously available and indicates where corrections to the compilation by Warren are required.
Using these coefficients to calculate the reflectance of CO 2 ice at varying grain sizes indicates that a typical Mariner polar cap spectrum is dominated by absorptions due to CO 2 frost or ice at grain sizes that are quite large, probably of the order of millimeters to centimeters. There are indications of contamination of water frost or dust, but confirmation will require more precise absorption coefficients for solid CO 2 than can be obtained from the method used here.
Effect of elevated [ CO 2 ] and nutrient management on wet and dry season rice production in subtropical India. The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated [ CO 2 ] with varying nutrient management on rice—rice production system. The higher [ CO 2 ] level in the OTC increased aboveground biomass but marginally decreased filled grains per panicle and grain yield of rice, compared to the ambient environment.
However, crop root biomass was increased significantly under elevated [ CO 2 ]. With respect to nutrient management, increasing the dose of CF increased grain yield significantly in both seasons. At the recommended dose of nutrients, integrated nutrient management was comparable to CF in the wet season, but significantly inferior in the dry season, in its effect on growth and yield of rice.
It was concluded that increased doses of nutrients via integration of chemical and organic sources in the wet season and chemical sources alone in the dry season will minimize the adverse effect of future climate on rice production in subtropical India. IR spectra were taken of each sample before sublimation to confirm the presence of volatiles.
The samples were then heated at rates from 0. The volatiles escaped from the ice mixtures in temperature ranges similar to those found in previous work 1, 2, 3 , namely K, K, K. H2O is released from K to K. However, the temperature range of escape is strongly dependent on deposition temperature and heating rate.
If the deposition temperature is below the point where the solid volatile rapidly sublimates in the ambient environment of our experiment, then the first range of volatile escape is centered around it's sublimation point, and there is little of the volatile remaining from K. The location of the third escape range shifts to lower temperatures with slower sublimation rate.
It was determined that 0. In our data, the infrared spectrum of CO trapped in water ice shows a splitting of the cm-1 solid CO line into two bands at cm-1 and cm These shifts are similar to those seen by Sandford, et al. Herman, D. Laufer, and M. Rappaport, , Icarus, 63, Dror, E. Kochavi, and D.
Laufer, , Physical Review B, 35, no. Donn, , Icarus, 94, Allamandola, A. Tielens, and G. Valero, , Astrophysical Journal, , Synergism between elevated p CO 2 and temperature on the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia lecointei. Full Text Available Polar oceans are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and warming.
Diatoms play a significant role in sea ice biogeochemistry and provide an important food source to grazers in ice -covered oceans, especially during early spring. However, the ecophysiology of ice -living organisms has received little attention in terms of ocean acidification. In this study, the synergism between temperature and partial pressure of CO 2 p CO 2 was investigated in relationship to the optimal growth temperature of the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia lecointei.
Synergism between temperature and p CO 2 was detected in growth rate and acyl lipid fatty acid FA content. Effects of carbon enrichment may be different depending on ocean warming scenario or season, e. Synergy between warming and acidification may be particularly important in polar areas since a narrow thermal window generally limits cold-water organisms. Chitosan-graphene oxide films and CO 2 - dried porous aerogel microspheres: Interfacial interplay and stability.
Owing to the presence of oxygenated functional groups in GO, good-quality crack-free hybrid films were obtained. The presence of graphene oxide was found to be detrimental for the thermal stability of the polysaccharide at T drying of the resulting soft hydrogels provides macroporous network with surface areas ranging from m 2 g -1 to m 2 g Improvement in both hydrothermal stability under water reflux and chemical stability under acidic conditions have been noticed for chitosan-graphene oxide microspheres with respect to non-modified chitosan and chitosan-clay bio-hybrids, a result rooted in the substantial hydrophobic character imparted by the addition of graphenic material to the polysaccharide skeleton.
In essence, this contribution demonstrates that graphene oxide loading do not disturb neither the filmogenicity of chitosan nor its gelation ability and constitutes a promising route for novel chitosan-based functional hybrid materials. All rights. Assessing the techno-environmental performance of CO 2 utilization via dry reforming of methane for the production of dimethyl ether.
Abstract CO 2 utilization is gaining attention as a greenhouse gas abatement strategy complementary to CO 2 storage. This study explores the techno-environmental performance of CO 2 utilization trough dry reforming of methane into syngas for the production of dimethyl ether DME.
The CO 2 source is a. Effects of intermittent CO 2 convection under far-infrared radiation on vacuum drying of pre-osmodehydrated watermelon. Watermelon, a tropical seasonal fruit with high nutrient content, requires preservation through drying due to its perishable nature. Nevertheless, drying of watermelon through conventional processes has a negative impact either on the drying time or on the final product quality.
In this work, osmotic dehydration of watermelon followed by far-infrared radiation-assisted vacuum drying FIRRAVD was optimized to develop dehydrated watermelon with minimum moisture content. Drying kinetics of each operation and physicochemical qualities of dried products were evaluated. The quality of the final dehydrated watermelon was superior compared to conventional drying protocols. The novel CO 2 convective drying of watermelon in the presence of far-infrared radiation demonstrated an energy-efficient and time-saving operation rendering a dehydrated watermelon with acceptable quality parameters.
Glycine Gly , the simplest amino-acid building-block of proteins, has been identified on icy dust grains in the interstellar medium, icy comets, and ice covered meteorites. These astrophysical ices contain simple molecules e. While much current effort is focused on understanding the radiochemistry induced in these ices by high energy radiation, the effects of the abundant secondary low energy electrons LEEs it produces have been mostly assumed rather than studied. Here we present the results for the exposure of multilayer CO 2 :CH4:NH3 ice mixtures to eV electrons under simulated astrophysical conditions.
Mass selected temperature programmed desorption TPD of our electron irradiated films reveals multiple products, most notably intact glycine, which is supported by control measurements of both irradiated or un-irradiated binary mixture films, and un-irradiated CO 2 :CH4:NH3 ices spiked with Gly. Our results show that simple amino acids can be formed directly from simple molecular ingredients, none of which possess preformed C—C or C—N bonds, by the copious secondary LEEs that are generated by ionizing radiation in astrophysical ices.
Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. The impact of CO 2 ice clouds on the outer boundary of the habitable zone. Clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. The potential scattering greenhouse effect of CO 2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. Here, the impact of CO 2 ice clouds on the surface temperatures of terrestrial planets with CO 2 dominated atmospheres, orbiting different types of The infrared absorption features of solid carbon dioxide have been detected by space observatories in nearly all lines of sight probing the dense interstellar medium ISM.
It has also been shown that the absorption feature of solid CO 2 near cm-1 However, the profile structure of this feature is not well understood, and previous laboratory studies have concentrated on a limited range of temperatures and compositions for comparisons to observed spectra from both the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the laboratory study described here, the infrared spectra of ices bearing H2O, CH3OH, and CO 2 have been measured with systematically varying compositions and temperatures that span the range of the values expected in the interstellar medium.
Additionally, annealing experiments of some of these ice compositions have been investigated. These data may be used to determine thermal histories of interstellar ices. We report unique observations of ikaite We report unique observations of ikai In an off-line step, the extracted sample is introduced into a helium carrier flow using a minimised tube cracker device.
Prior to measurement, N2O and organic sample contaminants are gas chromatographically separated from CO 2. This allows an identical treatment and comparison of sample and standard peaks. We achieve reproducibilities for bubble ice between 0. A comparison of our data with measurements on bubble ice from the same ice core but using a mechanical extraction device shows no significant systematic offset.
Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO 2 atmosphere. Heather R. Johnsen; Chris Maier; Seth G. Pritchard; Michael A. Ice storms are disturbance events with potential impacts on carbon sequestration.
Common forest management practices, such as fertilization and thinning, can change wood and stand properties and thus may change vulnerability to ice storm damage. At the same time, increasing atmospheric CO 2 levels may also influence ice storm vulnerability. Comparison of volatiles and mosquito capture efficacy for three carbohydrate sources in a yeast-fermentation CO 2 generator. Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO 2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO 2 source.
In this study, we document the differences in mosquito and non-mosquito capture rates from CO 2 baited dry ice or yeast fermentation of carbohydrates CDC t Sensitivity of Pliocene Arctic climate to orbital forcing, atmospheric CO 2 and sea ice albedo parameterisation.
There is also large uncertainty regarding the state of sea ice cover in the mPWP. Evidence for both perennial and seasonal mPWP Arctic sea ice is found through analyses of marine sediments, whilst in a multi-model ensemble of mPWP climate simulations, half of the ensemble simulated ice -free summer Arctic conditions. Given the strong influence that sea ice exerts on high latitude temperatures, an understanding of the nature of mPWP Arctic sea ice would be highly beneficial.
Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. Through proprietary means, O 3 was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million ppm by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O 3 concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product.
Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. Dry lithography of large-area, thin-film organic semiconductors using frozen CO 2 resists. To address the incompatibility of organic semiconductors with traditional photolithography, an inert, frozen CO 2 resist is demonstrated that forms an in situ shadow mask.
Contact with a room-temperature micro-featured stamp is used to pattern the resist. After thin film deposition, the remaining CO 2 is sublimed to lift off unwanted material. Pixel densities of pixels-per-inch are shown. KGaA, Weinheim. Supercritical CO 2 drying of poly methyl methacrylate photoresist for deep x-ray lithography: a brief note.
Poly methyl methacrylate PMMA is an extensively used positive photoresist for deep x-ray lithography. The post-development release of the microstructures of PMMA becomes very critical for high aspect ratio fragile and freestanding microstructures. The effect of low-surface tension Isopropyl alcohol IPA over water is investigated for release of the high aspect ratio microstructures using conventional and supercritical SC CO 2 drying. The results of conventional drying are also compared for the samples released or dried in both in-house developed and commercial SC CO 2 dryer.
However, this brings a limitation on the design of the microstructure. Loring, J. The effectiveness of geologic sequestration as an enterprise for CO 2 storage depends partly on the reactivity of supercritical CO 2 sc CO 2 with caprock minerals. Injection of sc CO 2 will displace formation water, and the pore space adjacent to overlying caprocks could eventually be dominated by dry to water-saturated sc CO 2.
Caprock formations have high concentrations of clay minerals, including expandable montmorillonites. Water-bearing sc CO 2 is highly reactive and capable of hydrating or dehydrating clays, possibly leading to porosity and permeability changes that directly impact caprock performance. Dehydration will cause montmorillonite clay minerals in caprocks to contract, thereby decreasing solid volume and possibly increasing caprock permeability and porosity.
On the other hand, water intercalation will cause these clays to expand, thereby increasing solid volume and possibly leading to self-sealing of caprock fractures. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Carbon Sequestration Initiative is developing capabilities for studying wet sc CO 2 -mineral reactions in situ. Here, we introduce novel in situ infrared IR spectroscopic instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in sc CO 2.
Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titrations of Na-, Ca-, and Mg-saturated Wyoming betonites with water over concentrations ranging from zero to sc CO 2 saturated. Transmission IR spectroscopy was used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the sc CO 2 or intercalated into the clays.
The titration curves evaluated from the transmission-IR data are compared between the three types of clays to assess the effects of the cation on water partitioning. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection ATR IR spectroscopy was used to collect the spectrum of the clays as they hydrate at every total water concentration during the titration. Clay hydration is evidenced by. Low energy secondary electrons are abundantly produced in astrophysical or planetary ices by the numerous ionizing radiation fields typically encountered in space environments and may thus play a role in the radiation processing of such ices .
One approach to determine their chemical effect is to irradiate nanometer thick molecular solids of simple molecular constituents, with energy selected electron beams and to monitor changes in film chemistry with the surface analytical techniques . Of particular interest is the formation of HCN, which is a signature of dense gases in interstellar clouds, and is ubiquitous in the ISM.
Moreover, the chemistry of HCN radiolysis products such as CN- may be essential to understand of the formation of amino acids  and purine DNA bases. Here we present new results on the irradiation of multilayer films of CO 2 and NH3 with 70 eV electrons, leading to CN bond formations. The electron stimulated desorption ESD yields of cations and anions are recorded as a function of electron fluence.
The identification of particular product ions was accomplished by using 13 CO 2 and 15NH3 isotopes. The chemistry induced by electrons in pure films of CO 2 and NH3 and mixtures with composition ratios , , and , was also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS. First estimates of the contribution of CaCO3 precipitation to the release of CO 2 to the atmosphere during young sea ice growth.
Geilfus, N. As the temperature decreases, concentration of solutes in the brine skim increases. Along this gradual concentration process, some salts reach their solubility threshold and start precipitating. The precipitation of ikaite CaCO3. The dissolved inorganic carbon DIC normalized to a salinity of 10 exhibits significant depletion in the upper layer of the ice and in the FF. This estimate is consistent with flux measurements of air- ice CO 2 exchange.
Our measurements confirm previous laboratory findings that growing young sea ice acts as a source of CO 2 to the atmosphere. CaCO3 precipitation during early ice growth appears to promote the release of CO 2 to the atmosphere; however, its contribution to the overall release by newly formed ice is most likely minor. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for p CO 2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters. A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO 2 exchange.
Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.
This corresponds to an air-sea CO 2 uptake of This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated p CO 2 uptake.
Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice — implications for p CO 2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters. Full Text Available A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air—sea CO 2 exchange.
This corresponds to an air—sea CO 2 uptake of The counteracting effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and drought episodes: Studies of enchytraeid communities in a dry heathland. The potential impacts of interactions of multiple climate change factors in soil ecosystems have received little attention. Most studies have addressed effects of single factors such as increased temperature or atmospheric CO 2 but little is known about how such environmental factors will interact Our study emphasises the importance of multi-factorial experimental design as a means to investigate effects of climatic changes In the present study we investigate the effects of in situ exposure to elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration, increased temperatures and prolonged drought episodes on field communities of Enchytraeidae Oligochaeta in a dry heathland Brandbjerg, Denmark.
Increased CO 2 had a positive effect on enchytraeid The recent shale gas boom combined with the requirement to reduce atmospheric CO 2 have created an opportunity for using both raw materials shale gas and CO 2 in a single process.
Two routes have been investigated by combining ethane decomposition with CO 2 reduction to produce products of higher value. The second route is oxidative dehydrogenation which produces ethylene using CO 2 as a soft oxidant. Diurnal dynamics of the CO 2 concentration in water of the coastal zone of lake Baikal in the ice period testing of the DIEL - CO 2 method for assessment of lake metabolic rate.
Panchenko, M. Results of three long cycles of hour measurements of the carbon dioxide content in the surface and bottom water in the ice period of in the Baikal coastal zone are analyzed. The diurnal dynamics of the CO 2 concentration in the subglacial water, in which photosynthesis plays the leading role, is described.
It is found that, in comparison with the surface subglacial water that is, directly adjacent to the ice bottom , the more pronounced diurnal rhythm of CO 2 is observed in the bottom layer in all realizations. This rhythm is well correlated with pyranometer readings. The data on the diurnal dynamics of CO 2 are used to estimate the gross primary production in the bottom water with the DIEL method based on the analysis of temporal variability of the carbon dioxide concentration in water in situ.
Thermal design of heat-exchangeable reactors using a dry -sorbent CO 2 capture multi-step process. The present study proposes a multi-stage CO 2 capture process that incorporates heat-exchangeable fluidized-bed reactors. Heat from carbonation in the high and middle temperature stages was used for regeneration for the middle and low temperature stages. The feasibility of this process is depending on the heat-transfer performance of the heat-exchangeable fluidized bed reactors as the focus of this study.
The reactor diameter was selected to provide dense fluidization conditions for each bed with respect to the desired flow rate. The flow characteristics and energy balance of the reactors were confirmed using computational fluid dynamics and thermodynamic analysis, respectively. Prediction of dry ice mass for firefighting robot actuation.
The limitation in the performance of electric actuated firefighting robots in high-temperature fire environment has led to research on the alternative propulsion system for the mobility of firefighting robots in such environment. Capitalizing on the limitations of these electric actuators we suggested a gas-actuated propulsion system in our earlier study. The propulsion system is made up of a pneumatic motor as the actuator for the robot and carbon dioxide gas self-generated from dry ice as the power source.
To satisfy the consumption requirement 9cfm of the motor for efficient actuation of the robot in the fire environment, the volume of carbon dioxide gas, as well as the corresponding mass of the dry ice that will produce the required volume for powering and actuation of the robot, must be determined. This article, therefore, presents the computational analysis to predict the volumetric requirement and the dry ice mass sufficient to power a carbon dioxide gas propelled autonomous firefighting robot in a high-temperature environment.
The governing equation of the sublimation of dry ice to carbon dioxide is established. An operating time of Thus, 8. Science , ] to form a mixed molecular ice. As the sample is slowly warmed, we monitor the escaping gas quantity and composition with a mass spectrometer.
Pioneering studies [Schmitt, B. Different trapping mechanisms of gases by water ice and their relevance for comet nuclei. In: Rolfe, E. B 38, ; Bar-Nun, A. Icarus 80, ] have shown that significant quantities of volatile gases can be trapped in a water ice matrix well above the temperature at which the pure volatile ice would sublime.
For our Enceladus ice mixture, a composition of escaping gases similar to that detected by Cassini in the Enceladus plume can be generated by the sublimation of the H 2O: CO 2 :CH 4:N 2 mixture at temperatures between and K, comparable to the high temperatures inferred from the CIRS measurements [Spencer, J. Science , ] of the Enceladus "tiger stripes. A similar experiment for ice deposited at 70 K shows that both the processes of volatile trapping and release are temperature dependent over the temperature range relevant to Enceladus.
Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO 2 extracts from freeze- dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae yellow mealworm. Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO 2 fluid freeze- dried powder of T.
The results about the effects of supercritical CO 2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased.
The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO 2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.
Precession and atmospheric CO 2 modulated variability of sea ice in the central Okhotsk Sea since , years ago. Lo, Li; Belt, Simon T. Recent reduction in high-latitude sea ice extent demonstrates that sea ice is highly sensitive to external and internal radiative forcings.
In order to better understand sea ice system responses to external orbital forcing and internal oscillations on orbital timescales, here we reconstruct changes in sea ice extent and summer sea surface temperature SSST over the past , yrs in the central Okhotsk Sea. To complement the proxy data, we also carried out transient Earth system model simulations and sensitivity tests to identify contributions of different climatic forcing factors.
Our data also show that the sea ice extent was governed by precession-dominated insolation changes during intervals of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations ranging from to ppm. Future missions to Mars and other planetary surfaces will probe under the surfaces of these worlds for signs of organic chemistry. In previous studies we have shown that glycine and other amino acids have radiolytic destruction rates that depend on temperature and on dilution within an H2O ice matrix Gerakines et al.
In the new work presented here, we have examined the destruction of glycine diluted in CO 2 ice at various concentrations and irradiated with protons at 0. Destruction rates for glycine were measured by infrared spectroscopy in situ, without removing or warming the ice samples.
New results on the half life of glycine in solid CO 2 will be compared to those found in H2O ice matrices. The survivability of glycine in icy planetary surfaces rich in H2O and CO 2 ice will be discussed, and the implications for planetary science missions will be considered. References: Gerakines, P. Icarus, , Gerakines, P. Astrobiology, 13, Late winter under ice pelagic microbial communities in the high Arctic Ocean and the impact of short-term exposure to elevated CO 2 levels.
The Arctic Ocean is at additional risk of accelerated ocean acidification OA because of freshwater inputs from sea ice and rivers, which influence the carbonate system. Winter conditions in the Arctic are of interest because of both cold temperatures and limited CO 2 venting to the atmosphere when sea ice is present.
Earlier OA experiments on Arctic microbial communities conducted in the absence of ice cover, hinted at shifts in taxa dominance and diversity under lowered pH. The Catlin Arctic Survey provided an opportunity to conduct in situ, under- ice , OA experiments during late Arctic winter.
Seawater was collected from under the sea ice off Ellef Ringnes Island, and communities were exposed to three CO 2 levels for 6 days.
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