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Initially he made only the huge nailing apparatus, but encouraged by Stebler's critics, such as F. Dunbar, Parker entered the field of citrus processing machinery in direct competition with C. He ultimately gained patents on sizers, separators, conveyors, washers, dumpers, and elevators and with them cut into Stebler's market. The legal fur really flew. Stebler accused Parker of intentional and willful disregard of Stebler patents and sued him at every opportunity.

The litigation continued unabated for ten years. Riverside's paper hardly went a day without reporting a charge or counter charge lodged by one or the other of these warriors. As Tom Patterson, journalist and local historian stated: "The titans described each other in Corral Five language. Clancy, President of Citizens National Bank, to persuade the two war horses to consolidate their citrus processing machinery businesses.

Parker retained his nailing machine line over at the Parker Machine Works. However, this arrangement was desirable because it eliminated the terrible expense we had both been through because of the continued litigation arising out of patent controversies, almost all of which were brought about by his insisting on appropriating my exclusive rights to inventions most of which were my own inventions.

He went on to argue that: "While I was successful in all cases of litigation against him, this did not stop him, so it was a case of vital importance that I resort to other means, which was this combination. Moreover, most of the patents on C. The merger, therefore, occurred for reasons of economic survival. Herein- after presented are descriptions of the three more hotly disputed patented machines from the C. The machinery used to size fruit is axiomatic in all modern packing houses, but this was not the case around Fred Stebler's entry into the problem of efficient citrus sizing resulted in the design and patenting of an improved labor saving fruit sizer.

James R. The Patent Office had granted Stebler all nine claims for his fruit grader sizer. Manufactured and sold by the consolidated Stebler-Parker Co. While spinning, the citrus fruit reached a point where it was no longer supported by the tube and conveyor.

At that juncture, the fruit dropped onto an inclined canvas and was discharged laterally from the sizer into a waiting bin. Stebler apparently won this case outright and the device made him a lot of money. According to Stebler's Letters Patent: "This invention relates to means for carrying or distributing fruit, and is particularly designed for use in con- nection with a fruit sizer or grader, and has for its general object the provision of simple and efficient means whereby the several grades or sizes of fruits, such The machine came with adjustable partitions for the bins to suit the packers' immediate requirements for bin 31 Smudge I'ot Orchard Heater Maker.

Rail Car Squeezer Squeeze c. This device was developed by Stebler's California Iron Works as a way to facilitate the loading of full orange crates into the standard refrigerated rail car. Crates were loaded and stacked into either end of the car by hand until just enough room remained to accommodate the squeeze.

At that point this device was wheeled on board and the steel bumpers were jacked outward to provide a few inches of extra space for the remaining crates. Citrus Machines room to secure the various sizes of fruit. Stebler's Distributor was constructed to sit on a slight incline so that gravity would move the fruit down the conveyor line. Tender fruit skins were protected in this way against abrasions that would have resulted from mechanical or forced conveyance down the line.

It became an overnight success in spite of the disdain many packers held for Stebler himself. Although most of the navel crop was ruined in 3, some of the crop would have been salvageable. But how? No effective method had yet been devised! Chase, one of the founders of National Orange Company, experimented with water separation based upon the specific gravity of citrus fruit.

The idea was that undamaged fruit would sink and frosted fruit would tend to float. Chase apparently placed the initial concept into the public domain. In 5, however, Chase assigned his rights to an improvement in the basic design to Fred Stebler.

The improved fruit separator was patented December 26, as 1,, The object of this invention, aside from making C. In this manner, frost damaged citrus would be effectively separated from good fruit. Although John Brown and James Boyd, History of San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, stated in that the merger of Stebler and Parker was deemed beneficial to the industry, citrus packers came to view the event in a different light. Many of them felt the Stebler-Parker Company, in tandem with Parker Machine Works, constituted a real monopoly on the manufacture of citrus machinery.

The League wanted a free market in citrus machinery so packers could not be compelled to purchase non-patented accessories just in order to obtain one item of patented equipment. His job as a patent lawyer 33 alifomia History was to investigate the Stcbler-Parkcr patents and to stimulate competition in the citrus machinery market. He was authorized to do this in order to break what the Citrus League viewed as the "strangle- hold Stebler-Parker had on the industry.

Keech would review and file appropriate competing patent applications for a fifteen percent royalty payment to the Citrus League. In order to accomplish his goal, Keech compiled a list of all manufacturers of food machinery in the United States. The intent was to get them interested in entering citrus machinery manufacturing in competition with Stebler-Parker.

The three big companies accepted his invitation, but somewhere along the line decided among themselves that a merger into one large corporation made more sense than expanding their competitive lines against one another. Sometime in early , the major packers of California were invited to the Elite Restaurant in Los Angeles for dinner and a discussion of the Riverside monopoly and how a new Food Machinery Corporation could help packers.

At that dinner meeting, Ogden Sells, Sprague-Sells Manufacturing Company, made an impressive case for the new corporation and how it would help modernize equipment lines to suit the packing house needs of the future. As Keech pointed out, all Sells wanted was to get the go ahead for this proposed corporation to purchase the "monopoly" in Riverside! Parker was happy to sell.

His Machine Works business was taking more and more of his time anyway due to a new patent war over nailing machines. Hale Paxton, Dana Keech's future client, had invaded Parker's territory with abandon. The legal sparks flew once again, but no longer in the realm of citrus processing equipment. The new Food Machinery Corporation saw to that. Fred Stebler was named manager. Then in the October issue of the Citrograph, an ad appeared geared to reassuring citrus packers that Food Machinery Corporation would live up to Ogden Sells' promise.

The ad read in part: "Our plans call for a definite program of progress and cooperation. Progress in the development of fruit handling equipment to keep pace with the ever-growing demand for speed, efficiency, and quality output. Those firms comprised the only real competitors to Stebler-Parker Company and were now a part of the conglomerate.

Further, under Fred Stebler's management, the existing patents were improved and so was Food Machinery Corporation's hold on 34 Citrus Machines the citrus machinery market. A short time later in they negotiated the purchase of the Paxton Nailing Machine Company. Food Machinery Corporation, Citrus Machinery Division, under Fred Stebler thereby gained almost airtight control over every major aspect of citrus machinery production.

Fred Stebler retired as manager of Food Machinery Corporation, Citrus Machinery Division, in , though he maintained close contact with the organization for years afterward. From time to time, the company bought inventions from him. One in particular, the drop-roll olive sizer , became quite successful. The patent application and purchase agreement were handled by none other than Dana Keech who was then patent attorney for FMC. By contrast, Stebler's nemesis, George Parker, died in 1 at age fifty-two while embroiled in yet another patent suit, and Hale Paxton suffered a fatal heart attack in Stebler himself died in after profiting mightily on capital increases in his FMC stock — he was eighty-six years old.

Dunbar to W. In the Riverside Municipal Museum Collection. Patterson, "Three 2-Fisted Inventors," 2. Haglund also serves as the president of the Riverside Historical Society. Rogers to Fred Stebler, September 29, In the Riverside Municipal Museum Archive.

Issued to Fred Stebler. Interview conducted by the author. The California Citrograph October : 5 All of the photographs are courtesy of the Riverside Municipal Museum. Curtis "New Chicago of the Far Wegt Land Speculation in Alviso, California, Even a passing examination of the motives, oper- ative process, and resulting patterns of settlement along the American frontier in the nineteenth century, must include mention of the important role played by the seemingly omnipresent land speculator-promoter.

Paul Wallace Gates, an acknowledged authority on land speculation, has concluded that ". Yet, in reality, the lure of a lodestone to quick profits prompted a host of folk, from the most virtuous pioneer to the most unscrupulous company, to speculate in land.

Whether company sponsored or individual initiative, however, land speculation remained speculation, a gamble, which in more cases than not ended in financial failure for the speculator. Bogue and Bogue comment that ". And, once committed to the task, the limits of their endeavors to attain success knew no bounds. Promotional advertising with fanfare, embellishment of facts, outright bribery, and chicanery were all orders of the day.

Yet, it is the conveyance of this very flamboyant spirit, which bordered often on melodrama, that breathes life into the subject of land speculation and helps one gain a clearer perspective on why this process was so fundamental in the settlement of the West. The countless failures notwithstanding, the lasting import of land speculation on existing patterns of land ownership, town layout, location of transportation lines, and establishment of county James R. It remained in business only one day.

California History scats, to name only a few, cannot be underestimated. One of the most outlandish land speculating and promoting schemes perhaps ever perpetrated on the West Coast took place between and in Alviso, California. A small port town, Alviso is located at the extreme southern tip of San Francisco Bay where the meandering Guadalupe River de- bouches into the bay after draining much of the northern Santa Clara Valley. The scale of this scheme may be illustrated simply by its name — New Chicago — indeed, a "New Chicago of the Far West.

The failure of this scheme in no way diminishes its historical importance as a case study illustrative of the pervasive spirit of land speculation and promotion in late nineteenth century California. The plan for a New Chicago at the port of Alviso was the brainchild of an extraordinarily clever and imaginative promoter named P. The fall of found Wheeler searching for a suitable site in California to relocate a defunct watch factory in southern San Diego County that he was in the process of buying.

Lacking sufficient capital to pur- chase land in an established industrial area, he needed a location where land values were low, but which offered potential for growth. His search led to Alviso. Beginning with the earliest days of Spanish settlement in northern California in the late eighteenth century, Alviso had served as a port of regional significance. Its functions as the major transshipment point and entrepot in the south bay region were pivotal in the early establishment and persistence of adjacent nodes of settlement.

Through the port funneled waterborne supplies, exports of hides and tallow, lumber, quicksilver, and agricul- tural products, which helped sustain the missions at San Jose and Santa Clara and the pueblo of San Jose, and the pioneers to populate them. The town of Alviso was founded in and incorporated in The comments of E.

Gould Buffum, who voyaged into Alviso in , are illustrative of the optimistic enthusiasm felt by many toward its founding: The want of a great commercial town at the head of the great bay of San Francisco has been supplied by the location of Alviso.

As early as , however, its important transportation function was seriously crippled when the San Francisco-San Jose Railroad was completed, bypassing Alviso. The town subsequently foundered and began slipping into obscurity and disrepair. Within two decades, however, the growth of agriculture in the greater region temporarily increased the volume of shipping at Alviso, and led to the construction in of a narrow-gauge line of the South Pacific Coast Railroad, linking Alviso to the main line in San Jose.

These changes brought little in the way of sustained economic revival for the town. Yet, as historian Munro-Fraser noted in "There are some residents who are still sanguine, and predict a great future for the little town. He was impressed with Alviso's location on a navigable waterway and its apparent potential for develop- ment. Conversations with local residents convinced 38 Located in the south San Francisco Bay region, Alviso's poorly-drained flood plain site helped to limit its settlement.

It was, in short, a land ripe for speculation and promotion. Thus, the scheme for New Chicago was conceived. In spite of his modest financial resources, being the able promoter that he was, Wheeler had soon marshalled a wealthy and influential group of sup- porters. These men held positions necessary to seriously undertake the kind of scheme Wheeler had in mind.

Foremost on the list of supporters were real estate brokers A. Darby, J. Roberts, and Paul Austin; John W. Rea, who was railroad com- missioner of the state; John Richards, a local attorney; and George A. Penniman, a wealthy fruit grower in the valley. Its prototype, of course, was Chicago. Chicago was not an unlikely analogue, since it too is situated at the end of a great body of water with a vast agricultural hinterland at its door, and the pace of its rise from local to regional to national stature was phenomenal.

Yet, in the late nineteenth century the image of Chicago was one of sylvan elegance and it was nicknamed, "The Garden City. The right men, the right spirit, the right fate, build cities in frog ponds; and here are the right men in the right place, with ,1 great open 'sea at their door.

The first phase in fostering this likeness called for the town to be platted like Chicago. The plat, surveyed by Henry Dittrich in early , totaled blocks. To increase interest in New Chicago, Wheeler and supporters devised an elaborate plan and persuasive argument for the proposed development of the town. The industrial component, for example, was to be most impressive.

Slated for construction were industries ranging from heavy iron and steel works to light textile factories. It was announced, for example, that the town could "expect to have Spreckels' next 40 The plan for New Chicago called for blocks each block being divided into sixty lots.

The strength of such facilities, it was reasoned, lay not only in the increasing volume of Santa Clara Valley trade, but also in the claimed shortcomings of the Port of San Francisco. San Francisco, it was said, was too expensive "for the storage of coal and other bulky products that require great space," and its "water frontage is inadequate to the needs of.

It was declared that since wharf rates at San Francisco amounted to three dollars and fifty cents for every ton of coal handled, "coal and other bulky articles could be delivered in San Francisco from Alviso by rail cheaper than at their own wharves. Not only was the proposed dredging expensive, but there was also the question of financing.

In magnanimous fashion, this probably bogus company presented a program to raise the necessary money by offering shares in the company. The company offered 20, shares of unassessable stock to the San Jose Board of Trade, to be sold to the public at five dollars per share, which was fifty percent of its reported par value.

The purchase was to be paid in ten monthly installments of fifty cents per share. To many residents of the valley who had long envisioned a port of Alviso as being their economic panacea, this plan was energetically hailed as a dream come true.

There were others, however, who remained skeptical of such a plan and demanded more specifics. To eliminate such skepticism and to hasten the sale of their stock, the company began a vigorous campaign to show the feasibility of the dredging plan. Chief spokesman in this effort was the company's resident authority on dredging and supervisor of the proposed project, General Albert Boschke.

General Boschke, it was pointed out, had spent forty years service in engineering work for the government, of which twenty-five were devoted to dredging and building dredging machinery. The arrival of Boschke was pointed to by those sup- portive of the plan as a great omen. As if by divine providence, it was proclaimed in one publication: Now, God, in His all-wise wisdom, saw fit to raise up one man, Boschke, a civil engineer of great renown, who has superintended dredging lo, these many years.

And He put the thought in this man Boschkc's head that he dredge the slough of Alviso. Of course, he added, this will depend, in large measure, upon the public spirit and enterprise of the good people of San Jose, who are to raise the money. One was disposing of the dredged material and the other was the possible breakdown of dredging machinery, thus delaying the project and incurring expensive repairs.

It was decided that the dredged material should be used to reclaim the marsh. As for the second problem, Boschke hastened to add, that he had designed a new dredge just for this project that "will dig 22, cubic yards in a day of 22 hours and never break down. Newspaper advertisements led the way. Half-page advertisements ran almost daily in the San Jose Daily Mercury for about a three month period during the spring of 1 On March 30, , the first day that 42 John W.

Rea right , state railroad commissioner and prominent hacker of the New Chicago scheme, posing with one James McKenzie and an unidentified woman. During most of these events, cither General Boschke or W. Hart, president of the dredging company, was called upon to clarify some technical or financial point of contention.

But generally, these meetings served only as an additional forum to promote the scheme. Shively, chairman of the San Jose Board of Trade Committee, was asked to investigate the officers of the dredging company and their proposed financing plan. But, "He. But a spokesman for the company quickly replied that they were "incorporated under the laws of Colorado for the reason that it gave greater protection to shareholders than did the laws of any other state.

In one case, a free lot in New Chicago was offered to the first person who could determine the number of square feet in a twenty-five by foot lot. They were not dis- appointed. On the first day that lots were offered to the public, lots were sold, establishing a new single-day record for San Jose. By the end of April , 2,31 1 lots had been sold. Thus, even supposedly objective news coverage about New Chicago served only to spark increased interest.

On April 13, for example, it was reported: The agents are constantly receiving letters of inquiry, and orders from all parts of the country and the prospects arc- that the lots in New Chicago will all be sold soon. Thus, advertising continued unabated. It was announced, for example, that Mr. Austin, a partner in the San Jose real estate firm, "is [to be] nominated for mayor of that town when it incorporates. The picture, it was reported During late spring of it was announced: 43 California History A movement is now on foot, in which Congressman Clurrie is taking an active part in Washington, to secure a government appropriation to extend the harbor im- provements two and a half miles further inland But, in spite of the auspicious real estate sales, and the construction of a few houses, there was little beyond promises to suggest that the proposed developments would be forthcoming.

The community thereafter assumed a more conservative, wait-and-see posture, while the sales of lots came to an abrupt halt. In an attempt to revive public interest and to appease rapidly growing skepticism, in October of , over two miles of streets were graded, graveled and curbed. Some months later, in February of , a bridge was built over Steamboat Slough. The community, however, remained largely unimpressed by these minor improvements, and the hopes of a New Chicago began to fade into oblivion almost as fast as they had emerged.

Throughout the months that New Chicago had been in the forefront of public attention, Wheeler, who initiated the scheme, maintained a relatively low profile in the public's eye, preferring to play a role largely behind the scenes. During the ensuing months of , and as the New Chicago scenario was reaching its scandalous conclusion, Wheeler began to assume an increasingly prominent position.

In a last ditch effort to renew interest in the scheme, and to satisfy his original goal, Wheeler completed plans to bring his defunct watch factory to Alviso. After resolution of a complicated series of legal problems surrounding the factory, it was in fact dismantled, brought to Alviso and rebuilt. In early September of , the impressive factory, known as the San Jose Watch Factory, was completed.

In spite of the building, and hiring of renowned watchmakers from throughout the country, especially Elgin, Illinois, the factory remained in operation but one day. Thus, in the end, even the profits which had been gained through shrewd promotion, sifted like sand through the open hands of the over-ambitious promoters. General Boschke and associates of the probably fictitious dredging company vanished, never to be seen or heard from again.

Law suits were duly filed against Wheeler, but he declared bankruptcy and left the community. In all likelihood, however, Wheeler probably hoped for nothing more than to raise enough money from the sale of lots to finance his watch factory and, at best, that would serve as a catalyst to attract other businesses. As far as the plan to dredge the slough and the other proposed developments, they were probably just ploys to hasten the sale of lots.

A traveler to Alviso in the middle s would probably stare with curiosity at the landscape remnants of New Chicago. Spanning Steamboat Slough was a new wooden bridge, scarcely used, and leading to apparently nothing but an open field.

Once across the bridge, and upon closer inspection, he 44 New Chicago would discover the faint trace of lines subdividing the expanse of open land into vacant lots. The streets which cut paths through the area in grid pattern were graded and graveled, but potholed and fast becoming overrun with weeds. Pausing at the widest street, he might glance up to find a bent and tattered sign which cryptically identified the street as "Grand Blvd.

But if rhetoric was reality, he would have seen a bustling, prosperous city. The photographs arc courtesy of the San Jose Historical Museum. Notes San Jose Daily Mercury, March 30, , p. April 1, , p. Alviso," p. October 30, , p. Allan G. Benny A. Phillips, "Alviso Boom. J With these words, Charles Melville Scammon, whose long career at sea included trading, whaling and Coast Guard service, recorded a turning point in his life.

Scammon was a man who always knew that his career and his destiny lay at sea. There are times in everyone's life during which critical, fateful decisions are made. For Scammon, the decision had always been in favor of the sea.

He had sailed on trading vessels off the east coast of the United States until he was offered a ship carrying gold-seekers around Cape Horn to California. He arrived in San Francisco about The city was crowded with Forty- niners scrambling to get to the gold fields. The precious metal had been reported to be lying in the streams of northern California just waiting to be scooped up by those who could get there first.

Scammon may have considered gold seeking but his writings record that he turned instead back to the sea. As new ships anchored in San Francisco Bay, crewmen deserted by the shipload to get in on the bonanza, leaving the bay a forest of idle or abandoned ships. There were few able bodied sailors left to man the ships that were ready to head west through the Golden Gate. In the face of such difficulties, many ship's captains resorted to "shanghai-ing" a crew or gave up the sea and joined the rush toward gold.

Scammon, being not inclined to do either of the foregoing, found a job whaling. It was a fateful decision for it led him to fame in three diverse but intimately connected areas: whaling, natural history and geography. It was as a whaler that he gained fame, if not fortune. It was these same whaling activities that caused his name to be left on the landscape in Mexico and in Alaska.

And it was whaling that made possible the writing of a book that became a basic tool in the study of whales, or cetology. Much has been written about Scammon, the whaler. The tale is often told of his discovery of the breeding places of the Pacific Gray Whale in the Lyndall B.

The frontispiece from Charles M. Scammon's book. It was as surely a turning point for the gray whale as it was for Scammon who foresaw and deplored the near extinction of this unique mammal. Important though this event was for Scammon, it consumed a very small portion of his life at sea. Scammon became a whaler of necessity and his whaling activities lasted only about eight years. His first recorded whale capture was not a gray but a right whale. It was killed with a new bomb lance harpoon on February 12, in the Indian Ocean.

Yet his name is forever linked with the gray whale and its Mexican breeding grounds. As a civilized whaler, a phrase Scammon used to designate responsible men who engaged in whaling activities, Scammon was aware of the deleterious effects that lagoon whaling had on the gray whale. He remarked that those areas where whaling had been most intense became deserted as the whale "learned to shun the fatal shore. He tried to keep his lagoon a secret — to no avail — and in spite of the destructive nature of the activity he did not cease to captain ships to Baja California.

There seems to have been a fascination for the task even as he recognized its end result. The path that led Scammon from whaling to writing the natural history of the cetacea and pinnipeds is not recorded. He obviously had an interest in, as well as sympathy for, the animals he was hunting. In later years, when he had already decided to write a book on the natural history of the mammals he encountered, he recognized the importance of his whaling activities: "The objects of our pursuit were found in great numbers and the opportunities for studying their habits were so good, that I became greatly interested in collecting facts bearing upon the natural history of these animals.

It is not clear whether this decision was made while he was still whaling or in later years when he realized how unique his experience and knowledge was. The book that he wrote as a result of this awareness, The Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast of North America, was a blend of natural history facts about whales and other mammals, the geography of the area and whaling practices of both Americans and Eskimos.

It was an impressive production for a man whose formal education had ended around the age of fifteen when he was apprenticed to a sea captain. This paucity of formal education did not hamper his making a major contribution to the scientific world in the foundation of the science of cetology. There is a majesty, an awe-inspiring quality about a great whale. Even today whales draw crowds of spectators towards a beached specimen or out to sea on whale-watching tours.

Their size, grace and manner arc stunning. Scammon, who had been sailing for ten years before he began whaling, had seen many whales in the course of his travels and was always curious to know more about them. During one of his sojourns ashore, he tried to find written material on the whale. There were many legends and stories but few facts. There was nothing on the gray whale. He noted that he was: "soon led to believe that, by diligent observation, I should be able to add materially to the scanty stock of information existing.

His book was published in , thirteen years after he ended his whaling career. These years remained vivid in Scammon's memory since his log books are precise as to date, place, weather and other details of the daily operation of a ship. They do not record much information on natural history.

The idea of writing down such facts grew and developed slowly. The inclusion of data such as measurements, food, names and habitat suggests that he kept many notes. There are several events or factors that contributed to Scammon's focus on natural history.

One of the first came after he quit whaling and became a captain in the Revenue Cutter Service later to be designated the Coast Guard. In he met William H. Dall who was to be a great influence on him. Scammon was named the commander of a five ship squadron on an expedition to survey Russian America. In this area was purchased by the United States and became the Alaska Territory.

Dall, a nineteen year old Navy Lieutenant, had been chosen for the job of naturalist on the expedition. He was in charge of 49 Captain Scammon and his crew aboard the Nightingale at Plover Bay, Alaska in looking forward on the ship. Scammon has his arms folded in the center; his wife, Susan, is on the far right.

Charles Scammon invertebrate specimens in addition to being the surgeon and keeper of scientific equipment for himself and six other scientists aboard. Scammon commanded the expedition from his flagship the Golden Gate and Dall was assigned to this ship.

They must have been drawn together by their interest in marine mammals, though we can only speculate on their meetings and conversations. Dall had been a student at Harvard and had learned much of his zoology from the famed Swiss-American naturalist, Louis Agassiz. One of Scammon's biographers, Campbell Grant, 5 thinks that this meeting with William Dall was the catalyst that led to the writing of Scammon's book, published nine years later.

It is clear that Dall was Scammon's first acquaint- ance with the academic world, with professional scientists, journals and educational atmosphere. Through this connection Scammon came to realize how great was his knowledge about the living whale. When Scammon's book was published, it included a twenty-six page catalog of Cetacea of the North Pacific written by Dall, then associated with the Smithsonian Institution. He was a respected zoologist when, forty years later, he wrote an obituary for Scammon in Science magazine.

It can be concluded that Dall gave Scammon confidence in his own exceptional fund of information and an introduction into an area where it could be understood, published and appreciated. He clearly was aware, after this time, of the worth of his observations and his experience at sea among the whales. Beginning in Scammon became associated with another influence that led toward the writing of his book. The Overland Monthly was a magazine first published that year in San Francisco.

This publica- tion had a unique place in the development of the California cultural community in the late nineteenth century. In its first issue it professed to be a publi- cation that would feature the Pacific Coast in tone and origin.

It intended to embrace the commercial and social interests of California and would include only original articles, stories and poems which reflected western talent, ideas and tastes. Ross Browne and others, including Harte himself, who became the literary backbone of the West. The magazine also included articles on travel, art, politics, science and natural history. It was a financial and critical success. It presented the new state of California, a part of the union for only two decades, to the rest of the world.

It enjoyed wide circulation that extended to Europe. Charles Dickens was reputedly a reader, especially of Bret Harte stories, and eagerly awaited each issue. In all, he wrote fifteen articles for the Overland Monthly.

Five of these were on strictly natural history subjects. They included discussions on the fur seal, sea otter, sea elephant and the orca. None were on whales. Seven other articles concern the geography of the Pacific and the Northwest. Three other articles covered whaling practices and hunting for sea elephants. Scammon's writing is precise and spare. His articles contrasted with the popular literary style of the day and with the western flavor of the other articles in Overland Monthly.

His subjects provided the interest: sights unknown to the reader, animals never seen, the sea, whaling. All of these were replete with drama that was emphasized by the understated calm of the author. He obviously knew his subjeets. Whether describing the plight of the seals of the Farallone Islands, whieh have "fallen victims to the hunter's club and spear" and whose "restless actions manifest a feeling of insecurity" 8 or the approach from the sea to the Columbia River as "a sandy coastline which stretches between bold headlands, behind which are navigable waters.

During these years, to , Scammon was on active duty as captain of a Revenue cutter. How much time he had to write is not known. He did take several tours of sick leave ashore. This might have afforded him the time to organize his writings.

There is a distinct possibility that these articles served as first drafts for his later book. Several of them — on the fur seal, otter, sea elephant and the orca — were later incorporated into it. None were printed completely verbatim, as measurements, sketches and long explanatory footnotes were added for the book. But it is obvious they were not re-written. The Overland Monthly articles then can be viewed as preliminary to the book, almost first drafts.

We can conclude that, given the somewhat eclectic nature of Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast, its makeup was dictated by these articles or at least designed to incorporate the majority of them. This might explain the inclusion of sections on whaling and whaling tools and practices of Alaskan and American whalers.

That they were produced prior to the book is unquestioned. That they were intended as part of the book from the first is not so obvious. One point in favor of this view is the illustration of the Orca in the Overland Monthly article which is quite apparently a preliminary sketch for a more complete plate in the book. He became a part of the cultural, literary life of the city. This also had a decided influence on his decision to write a book.

He was in poor health at this time, though still on active duty, and spent much time ashore. His association with the cultural leaders of San Francisco, through his connections with Overland Monthly and its publishers, must have been heady for a ship captain from Maine with only a basic education.

He did not enjoy this position for long as he moved his family to Sebastopol in This small town seventy- five miles north of San Francisco was a place where he hoped to recover his health. His association with writers, publishers, scientists and naturalists lent impetus to work on his book.

It is not possible to determine whether this influence was a major cause of the writing of the book. It seems likely to have been highly stimulating as was his introduction to the scientific world. He had informal meetings with Louis Agassiz and other scientists. He became a member of the California Academy of Sciences and presented several talks to the meetings. He dedicated his book to Agassiz, who died the year before it was published, showing his confidence that he was producing information that would be appre- ciated by zoologists.

That Scammon is now being accepted as one of the pioneer American cetologists, the only American whaler to be so designated, is due almost entirely to his book on marine mammals. In it he published the first extensive description of the Pacific Gray Whale. This light gray barnacle-covered whale is often called a living fossil. It has the most primitive characteristics of all modern whales including a long head and short baleen plates.

When first reports of its travels along the California coast reached the zoological estab- lishment of nineteenth century Europe and America, it was linked with one or more extinct species. It was shortly placed in a species classification by itself, 52 A drawing of California Gray Whales among the icefloes was printed in Scammon's book and signed by him. Scammon produced the first facts about this new species.

These were first published in an article by Edward Cope entitled "On Agaphelus, a genus of toothless Cctacca. Dall as his source with no mention of Scammon. Whether Scammon was furious about this or not, as claimed by Campbell Grant, 12 he did get several articles printed in scientific journals and was honored by having his name attached to a particular species of balenoptera, since reduced to a sub-class. Whether or not Scammon was listed as the first describer of the gray whale in scientific circles, there is certainly no doubt that he is credited with giving the first extensive description of it, including aspects of its food and behavior, never before covered.

Having little background in established zoological principles, Scammon ignored its connection with extinct varieties. His attention was focused on the living whale that he met in the lagoons and along the coast of California.

His pages on the gray whale, numbering only thirteen, are not complete. He could describe only what he could see in the murky waters of the lagoons or offshore. His admiration for these animals shows through in several places. They are described as intelligent, sagacious, sportive, playful and tenacious of life.

Despite his occupation, which concerned the killing of these animals, his interest in their natural history was extensive. It might even be possible that this interest shortened his whaling career and may have helped turn his mind toward their natural history. In any study of the gray whale, Scammon's thirteen pages on it in Marine Mammals must stand at the beginning.

It was the major reference on this whale for fifty years. This book was also used as a source of information on the right, blue, sperm and bowhead whales as well as dolphin, pinnipeds or seals and sea elephants. Scammon also added to knowledge of the habits of the killer whale or orca. The book included one hundred pages on American whaling practices and techniques, interesting for its detailed descriptions of methods and of equipment.

It is not a comfortable mixture of subjects. It can be seen as a compendium of knowledge and experience possessed by Captain Scammon. In this aspect it is a very personal book, though written in a decidedly impersonal style. Scammon wrote no other books after Marine Mammals. This book was his magnum opus though it was a financial failure. He and his publisher, John Carmany, however, considered it such an important book that they freely distributed copies to friends and to libraries.

According to one report, 13 there were still many copies in the offices of John Carmany on April 6, They disappeared in San Francisco's great earthquake and fire. The Revenue Service continued to be Scammon's primary place of employment until he retired in He wrote one more article for Overland Monthly in He was reportedly at work on a scientific treatise at this time, but the section on the manatee, or sea cow, was the only part published.

He observed two captured specimens in Key West, Florida in 1 but he was not enthralled with these slow and pudgy- animals. He calls them interesting but of a low order, thick, sluggish, with eyes devoid of expression. He quotes other writers on the subject, though it is clear that little was known about them. Scammon did not even know their scientific species classification, though it had been established in the eighteenth century. Scammon's last article was not one of his better efforts and, ironically, it was the only one that carried his name on it when the magazine was published.

The original contributions to the Overland Monthly were traditionally identified by author only in the 55 A drawing by Scammon for the second part oj his book which covered whaling practices. This policy was changed after the first five years. Scammon was sixty-four years old when this article was printed and he retired from the Revenue Service only four years later. Apparently ill, though he lived to the venerable age of ninety-six, he wrote no more, explored no more.

Scammon had gained notoriety in the years when the adventure, danger and drama of whaling were popular subjects for literature and drama. There is reason to believe that, though the mechanics of whaling seem to have fascinated him, he was not enamored of the actual killing of the whales of any species. It is ironic, therefore, that he has remained most visible as the discoverer of the breeding lagoons of the gray whale and the leader of the slaughter that rendered them almost extinct.

His other accom- plishments were not as notorious or spectacular but he would certainly be as pleased at the label of "cetologist" as he ever was to be called sea captain. Overland Monthly, Vol. Grant, Charles Scammon, p. Charles M. This is an introduction to a facsimile edition of Marine Mammals. Ernest R. University of California, It has almost become a national pastime, witness the two hun- dredth anniversary of the nation's independence in Thus, when it came time to celebrate the bicen- tennial of the founding of Los Angeles in , one could have anticipated a flood of books.

Not so! The publishing world responded with restraint. One also might add, with a bit more quality rather than quantity. The publication highlights of the bicen- tennial year consisted of two original historical treatments, lavishly illustrated; a book composed of historic photographs with supporting text, and a charmingly written appreciation of Los Angeles by a talented writer. Each in its own way was worthy of the occasion.

Two talented historians took on the task of writing special coffee-table sized histories for Los Angeles' birthday. The books share much in common: the same subject; handsome de- sign and layout; lavish use of illustrations, both black and white as well as color; comparable appagination; identical size and price, and both are well written.

Each includes a chronology of the city's history, Clark places his as the first chapter, while Lavender's comes at the end of his narrative. Each also concludes with a section devoted to Los Angeles institutional, Doycc B. Nunis, Jr. Most recently he edited the second edition of W. The inclusion of the latter helped to defray cost of publica- tion. Each contains an index and acknowledgments, and Clark adds a bibliography. Clark divides his historical narration into ten chap- ters, while Lavender uses eight.

Clark's chronology is also presented in narrative form, while Lavender's is strictly date and event. Both books are fairly even in distribution of subject matter and content. Nevertheless, there are several marked differences. Clark tends to emphasize more interpretation; La- vender elaborates more on events and personalities. Clark has somewhat of a broader sweep, but Laven- der has a keener appreciation for condensation.

Both approaches have merit. In the main, Lavender's pic- ture captions are more detailed than those in Clark, and Lavender's chronology is far more meticulous in coverage. As for the closing section in each, appro- priately called "Partners in Progress" in Clark and "Partners in Economic Progress" in Lavender, these 60 The Los Angeles Plaza Church served early residents for a number of years.

It is seen here toward the end of the s. No reader should approach these two books ex- pecting definitive treatment of the history of Los Angeles. Instead, they are popular histories, in the best sense of that word, prepared for the general au- dience. For what they attempt, namely a readable and brief history, made less painful by good writing and handsome illustrations, they succeed admirably.

As in such works, one can always pick the specks out of the pepper. For example, there are some bloopers in both, but Lavender's appears to have suffered from less editorial attention, especially in proofing copy, than Clark's, and there are some errors in Lavender's chronology.

On balance, I would be hard pressed to choose one over the other. That's why I am glad I have both. Each makes its own individual contribution. Knopf, Inc. In sixteen chapters he traces the history of Los Angeles in visual materials, primarily black and white photographs, although there is a single chapter in dazzling color. Each chap- ter begins in most instances with a two-page narra- tion, followed by a bevy of photographs germaine to the chapter's theme.

Much of the story is told in lengthy captions, and rightly so since this is an illus- trated history. The photographs have been well selected, as were those in the Clark and Lavender books. Henstell es- chews using the familiar and has striven to include "fresh" images of the city's historic past.

His success is apparent: this is a fresh-faced look at Los Angeles as captured by the lenses of many cameras, amateur and professional. The book is well made, somewhat shorter in height than the larger Clark and Lavender works. But like them, it has a few added features: a sparse chronology and a capsule bibliography. An index is omitted. In contrast to Clark and Lavender, this is really a "pic" book, to use the vernacular of the trade.

One of the more entertaining of the books issued to commemorate the city's bicentennial was authored by John C. An abridged version of that trade edition was especially printed for the Atlantic Richfield Company copies for private distribution. With great humor and with an eye for the unusual, Weaver provides an informative and sparkling tale. He gallops through the early history up to 1 in two chapters, which consume only one-fifth of the 61 book's contents.

His primary focus is the present century, and he ploughs through these past eighty years, decade by decade, treating each to a chapter. The narrative is presented in chiseled prose, easy to read and digest. There are some surprises in the mate- rial covered, particularly in detail and anecdote, but on the whole the terrain is familiar. As in the previ- ous edition, the book concludes with a section entitled "Los Angeles Miscellany" which is a mini- mini almanac of information on topics ranging from Angels Flight, a former landmark, to Yangna, the Indian village which was the city's antecedent.

Sources used and an index round out the volume. This new expanded edition has a decided point of view: it is an upbeat treatment of the city's develop- ment. Few of the city's warts are revealed. It is ob- vious that Weaver loves L. Nothing wrong about that, but it does make for a rosier picture than perhaps facts warrant. This is not to impute to Weaver distortion or error, for he certainly has done his homework to render a factually accurate portrait in what he paints.

Rather, it is in the area of what is included and how the city is perceived in the eye of the author that no doubt will generate criticism. On the other hand, perhaps a history clothed in positivism will be welcomed by those grown tired of reading the seamy side of life as it is spread across the local daily newspapers and carried into our homes in living color through television newscasts.

And speaking of newspapers, 19H1 marked the 62 One of many Los Angeles real estate ventures in the late s involved the sale of the William Wolf skill tract. Abrams, Inc. Thomas Johnson Publisher , and William F. Thomas Editor , all of the Times Mirror Corporation which owns the Times, followed by a brief essay by Digby Diehl, introduce facsimile front pages from the news- paper.

The reproductions are arranged chrono- logically with the century of publication divided into decades. At least one front page from each year in the decade is included, although the average is two, with the number of front pages in each section ranging from a dozen upward. The reproductions are sharp and clear, although there are occasional bloopers see pp.

So, if you like to hopscotch through Los Angeles history as re- ported in the front pages of the Times, this book is for you. Unfortunately there is no index, so scholarly and reference use is strictly limited. Francis J. Weber, the archivist for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles. This is another title in his series of documentary histories of the California missions. He has elected to include Nuestra Sefiora de Los Angeles, the Plaza Church's official name, since it was one of five asistencias or assistant missions founded in Alta California.

The church's history is chronicled in forty-two selections which have been drawn from an equal number of publications, both books and magazines. The subject matter is distributed mostly on a chronological arrangement, dating from , when Fray Juan Crespf named the Los Angeles River, to 1 97 1, an extracted article which was critical of the recent restoration of the historic church.

The two concluding pieces do not fall within the otherwise structured chronology and are definitely out of sequence. This historical anthology has much to recommend it. One quickly gleans the role the venerable church has played in the Plaza area, the historic heart of old Los Angeles. Indeed, one comes to view the Old Plaza Church as a faithful reflection of the city's past.

Many of the selections are firsthand accounts; the rest are secondary, some of them no doubt based on documentary sources. The most impressive piece is the republication of J. Thomas Owen's historical account of the church, However, his ex- tensive footnotes have been omitted. Nevertheless, it is the jewel in the volume. The other selections arc merely its facets. Unfortunately, there are two criticisms to be voiced. First, several of the illustrations are in error either as to positioning the frontispiece or in identification.

Second, Msgr. Weber has included from his own writings his study, El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora de los Angeles, which details his reasons for the original name given the pueblo when it was founded. A contrary opinion has been expressed by Theodore E.

Treutlcin, which disputes Msgr. Weber's contention. That study was published in the Southern California Quarterly, Spring Prudent readers will wish to evaluate the question by con- sulting both points of view. This cavil aside, Msgr. Weber has provided us with a valuable book, worthy of inclusion on any list of books relating to Los Angeles.

One of the most imposing and monumental books published, one which enriches the history of medicine in Los Angeles, is the magnificent study by Helen Eastman Martin, M. Martin, long associated with both institu- tions, labored on this history for many years; retire- ment made possible its completion. Historians of Los Angeles will be indebted to her for her model scholarship, thoroughness, accuracy, and wealth of information packed within the pages of text and numerous illustrations.

The text is divided into five parts. Part I surveys the first county hospitals from 1 Part II commences the story of the present county hospital, first located on Mission Road, 1 The last two parts center attention on the twenty years of tremendous growth and change, , and a discussion of the various medical departments, administration, and other hospital services as they are presently consti- tuted.

A brief epilogue and eight short appendices conclude the volume, capped by excellent name and subject indexes. Factually, the content of the book is extremely rich; no stone has been left unturned. Each section, each chapter has been carefully researched and taste- fully written. It is an exhaustive study of Los Angeles' major hospital and one of the nation's im- portant medical centers.

We can be grateful that the University of Southern California Press undertook the book's publication. Proceeds go to the hospital. Jude Medical, Inc. William G. Steele III Mr. Donald T. Sterling Mr. Marc I. Mark R. The Tappan Foundation Mr.

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Wilmes, A. Kubieg B. Wernen M. Paliekz, D. Mohn D. Woytowieh, K. Wrzghi M. Bender, L. Row I: Another Central hrs! The members for the Hrs! Nagle, K. Sehmakel Hzggins, K. Przybylskg M. Poleyn, A. Pethe, f Sartor, B. Martins, Lee, R Poirier, S. Dixon, S. Kives, R. Thomas, f Soviar, K.

Cieslikowskg C. Kaminski L. Roemmele, M. Gould, A. Row 2: M. Lawniezak, M. Dunn, L. Marshall M. Callaghen C. Welch, M. Haugh, G. Oehmanck, E. Halker, K. Earl Lindsay, M. Duszynskz, M. Porthouse, L. Houck, M. Fackelman, f McLeoaQ M. Insenga, B. Hickey, C. Scott R. MePlzillzjJs, R. Sorg, F Binkozuski K. Row 2: R Moran, K. Agosti, S. Osten B. Kibbey, B. Batey, L.

Schoen- P m felt Byrai D. Row 3: D. Lzlbpen K. Wisniewski M. Collins, R. Morrin, C. Larier, T Wagner, R. Beckman, S. Row 4: D. DeWitt D. Deoer, f Skeldon, D. Bradley, D. Stevens, B. Crindle, B. Row 3: K. Bonai T Ligibel R. Wells, T Sayers, Wezlv, H. Zibbel R. TT66bl, D. Mal- lory, A. Pineiottz, T Printke, R. Heinrning, T Neeb, M. Upham, M. Perzynskz, M. Neu- hausel, Polakovie, V Knotts. Row 4: M. Mohler, D. Nowak, R Link, A.

Newton, f MeGreevy, Gram- ling, D. Paul j. Parent L. McCartney, M. Smith, D. McDermott W Lyons, D. Not photograplzeaf' C. Binkert f. Lewandozuski S. Sitek, K. Wichowskz, R Albrecht, B. Basso, S. Borgess, M Woofl M E. Ignasiak, C. Niewz'a- domskz, K. La Scola. Row 2: M Behan, S. Gardner, S. Lechlak, R Lennex, S. Barrow, K Kozlowski B. Hegedus, C. Siwa, M. Kubzbkzl Row 3: f Wakelin, E. Samsel, S. Sminiak, W Sneider, R. Michalak, B. Kubicg Gardnen B.

Rielzhe, R. Nirschl F johnson. Row 4: f Kahl R. Day, f Szychowskz, L. Bzlvsonnette, R. Becker, K. Winningen M. Shea, T Zimmerman, D. Patrick of Heatherdowns Court House St. Baiog, S. Bohnelg Milano, M. Olczak, A.

Ciehy, N Swemba, A. Cyranowskz, C. Slashiewicz, C. Szpansl-cz, M. Row 2: R Thompson, G. Hunten S. Lindsay, B. Humbert, S. Maloney, f Bonh, M. Szyperskz, R. Bellingen M Seilg B. Sprunlc, Row 3: C. Crowley, T Humphrey, f Stein, D. Petlee C. MeCary, R. Polanah YT Soehockz, M. Simon, f Stevens, T Kall-fa, C. Hunler, M. Amslulg M. Aunt Eller tries to raise the price on the box lunch in the bidding competition between fud Fry and Andrew Carnes.

Gerald DePrisco and Mrs. Roger Weiher to select it as the spring musical. Ali cried, "It's a Scandal! It's an Outrage! Laurey soon realized her true feelings for Curly and they became engaged. On their wedding night, friends wished them well by singing " Oklahoma! Curly was declared innocent and he and Laurey departed in the surrey.

R AAR ,. Roger Weiher, played to enthusiastic audiences, November The orchestra, under the direction of Mr. Donald Noble, provided musical selections during the intermission of the popular Broadway comedy. The plot revolves around the two Sherwood sisters -- Ruth, a neophyte journalist, and her sister'Eileen, an aspiring actress -- from Columbus, Ohio, who try to "make good" in New York.

The girls lease a Greenwich Village basement studio. During the first few months, a variety of hilarious situations created by the neighbors upstairs, the Greek land- lord-painter, friendly Portuguese sailors, and other unusual visitors create a whirl of activity for the two heroines. The heartwarming comedy is climaxed by the girls' decision to remain in New York rather than to return home.

Never a dullmoment in theSherwoodstudio! Appopolus holds the newbi- szgned lease as a sandhog fLarry McCartneyj takes a short-cut through the studio. Eileen Sherwood fSuzanne Borgessj who makes friends The Wreck fMiheAinstutzj, Helen'shus- band observes his mother-in-law for the first time. The Slaff also runs the addressograph. Deep i'n thought sports editor Lar- ry Montrie contemplates the posi- tioning ofa story for the next issue.

To right: Page one editors take the first step in preparing the newspaper, planning a page layout. Activities center around mascot "Squeak " perched on the desk. Co-editors Mary Ellen Ignasiak and Yim Sexton eo-ordinate the workings ofallfourpages toproduce thejinzshedpaper.

Business managers Frank Grobosky, and Torn Meehan place a telephone call while ad managers Larry Nester and Clarence Cerrone Qzpe statements to send to those who purchased ads. The Centric, under the guidance of co-editors Tim Sexton, Mary Ellen Ignasiak and moderator Sister Thomas More OSU, donned a new look this year as the production process was switched to offset printing in january.

The staffwas faced with headlines, layouts and dead- lines as they rushed to bring Centralites news of the school community. Room became the center of activity as the bi-weekly deadlines grew near. This year's publications, besides sporting the tradi- tional Squeak, club, and class columns, also featured a variety of new angles in news reporting. Guest columnists and interviews with civic leaders greeted Centralites when they delved into their papers. The Centric has carried on the tradition set by its predecessors of factual, non-biased reporting in an effort to keep all students up to date on school activities.

Page 65 entripetcil Hub Cf Activity The Cenfripeial staff, under the leadership of John Gardner and Frances Hayes, fought deadlines and headlines in an attempt to present this year's annual. The staff was faced with the task of determining color, theme, and arrangement in an attempt to make this year's edition of the Ceniripeial a publication to remember.

The yearbook, financed by a patron drive which netted over S3,, advertising and student subscription drives, went to press in April. The staff hopes that the Ceniripeial will hold fond memories of this school year. The business stajfsuceessfulbz changed debits z'nt0 credits. Sharon Simms and Elaine Cuzynskzg arteditors, check final page layouts before forwarding them to the printer. The cover design was the outgrowth ofElaine's original sketch. Page 67 In his ofice as student council president jeffrey Hellrung zls responsible for the successful completion ofeach council undertaking.

Student Council Promotes Activities The Student Council acts as the voice of Central's students in co- ordinating extra-curricular activities. School projects are guided by the hard work of the directors. Serving her first year as moderator is Sr. Johnene, SND, assisted by veteran, Mr. Tim Dever. The executive committee, consisting of student council officers, class officers, senators and commissioners, bears the responsibility for co-orclinating all school projects.

Meeting each Monday, they discuss matters pertinent to school life. This year, the Inter-Club Council, under the direction of vice-president John Woll, has been reactivated. Row I, leh to right Kathy Curto, sophomore secretary, Ron Nz'rschl senat0r,' Terri Augello, senator, janet Soviar, senaton' john Woll student council vice-president' jejj Hellrung, student councilpresident.

Row 3, janice jagodzinskz, merit,' Sue Lindsey, junior secretary, Pat Lane, junior treas- uren' Mz'ke Higgins, freshman vice-president' Carol Boyce, freshman secretary, Nancy Poole, freshman treasurer. Page 68 Leaders of the school and co-ordinators of activities, the Student Council omcers, john Woll vice-presidenl' Nancy Heil treasuren' jeff Hellrung, presidenl' and Sue Zalenskz, secretary, keep Central 's projects running ejWctiveb1.

Page 69 will Up QW ilr , Lfxlnh. Bonnie Batestole willput the missal on the altar and Trudy Daley will light a fresh vigil lamp. Under the auspices of Sr. John Berchman Sanctuary Society promotes religious vocations among the boys who act as servers. Under the guidance of Sr. Lucilla RSM, the Catholic Art Apostolate strives to raise the stand- ards of appreciation and revive true Christian art by presentation of slides and discussion of art values.

The daily care of Christ the King Chapel is the duty of members of the St. Hilda Guild, directed by Sr. Ruth Ann SND. Club dues provide ac- cessories and necessities for the chapel. Club members prepare altar in the gym for the annual retreat.

Standing are Dave Lardinais and Richard Buckenmeyer. The medicine is shipped to the foreign mis- sions. Mike Fosnaugk proposes the gualijications of his favorite candidate to Karen Kirk and feanne Nalodka. Craig LaBay and Harley Andr- zejewski express their points of view. Mary of Mercy RSM. Under the direction of Sr. Adolph SND, members of the German Club participate in activities designed to enrich their knowl- edge of German culture and geography such as attending the International Insti- tute which familiarizes members with Ger- man songs and dances.

Members are elected into the National Hon- or Society by the faculty. Students elected must have the necessary scholastic require- ments, as well as outstanding Leadership, Service and Character. The organization has used as its theme for the year, "the development of the arts for leisure. A board of nine faculty members comprise thefaculty committee, with Mrs.

Velma C. Pfeiffer act- ing as the advisor. Kathleen SND, moderates monthly French Club meetings, planned to promote a deeper interest in the people and customs of France. French club ofcers proudb di'splay French valentines designed by club mem- bers. Chris Seibenick feels the one she selects is very appropriate to send to their friends in France.

German club members conkr on the customs of the German people as de- picted in the pictures. Clarisena RSM, acquaints members with various educational fields by observing ele- mentary cl a s s r o o m procedure in area schools. The Chemistry Club, guided by Sr. Flo- rian, OSF, supplements the student's chem- ical knowledge through the presentation of recent improvements and new theories. The Spanish Club, moderated by Sr.

Highlighting the year is the Saturnalia at Christmas time and the state convention in Columbus. The Radio Club, supervised by Sr. Tere- sita, OSF, develops interest in electronics through practical experience and provides a means to obtain a license. In order to gain valuable experience, Mary Ball takes notes on theprocess ofcalculating grades as Karoll Rowe observes one ofthe daihz procedures she will perform aher four years ofcollege preparation for the teaching profession.

David Kolodziejczyk demonstrates to Radio Club members the proper way to speak into the microphone ofa short-wave radio system. L Q if lie? Rahlh Trease and john Wozny learn the intricacies of a gyroseope, as an aid to th eir eh enzieal studies. The Romans honored the Saturn, the earth goal in thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest. Some modern Christmas customs stern from the Roman Satur- nalia. Page 75 Encouraging interest in the field of mathematics is the goal of the Math Club.

Under the supervision of Sr. Teresita OSF, members took a field trip through the University of Toledo computer center, and heard many fine speakers at regularly sched- uled meetings. Obtaining a greater knowledge of the functions of science in daily life is stressed by the Biology Club, directed by Sr. Blandina OSF. To improve the club's organization and activities, a constitution has been written and ratified by members. The basic function of the Camera Club is to develop skill in the use of the camera.

Aided by Sr. Lucilla RSM, members learn the latest methods in developing and processing photos. To acquaint themselves with the different oppor- tunities open to registered nurses, the Future Nurses of America tour area hospitals and attend lectures given by key people in the medical field.

Ambrose RSM serves as moderator. Stephanie Schafer ana' Nancy Meredi'th realize the effort and hard work put into a science project in order to earn a Superior Rating. Page 76 Alathematicianas, Ed Mowha ana' Esther Kosahowski discuss the problem of computing the area ofthe 3-Dpobzgon which john Pacer holds. Marihzn Bagdonas and Mi'ke Cyurko check me th eofe m for me Coffef fmeizwd ofeomputing the answer.

Through Club Activities fay Kowalski fim Hermann, ana' fohn Falke focus their attention on Peggy LaPZante as they examine the photographic merits ofthe picture she holds. Library Club members attempt to bring students to a greater realization ofthe true value offrequent reading. Clubs Emphasize Reading Lending a helping hand to allow librarians more time for their professional services, the Library Club members assist students in taking out and returning books.

The climax of the year was the presentation of an assembly by members entitled: "Book- land Characters. For the second year member students, under the leadership of Mr. Dean Richards, attempt to bring the knowledge they gain to others following the principle of" Each one teach one.

Row 4, Dan Buehenmeyen and Tom Rawshi. The grid-men of Central won 7 of their 9 games. Their only city league defeat came with less than a minute to go against Macomber, as the Irish were finally worn down by a much heavier team. The high pointofthe season came on the after- noon of November 8, when Central's" Fighting Irishlthumped the Knights of St.

Francis, This win kept the "Irish Knight", a coveted and sought after trophy, in the hands of Central for another year. Other high points were frequent as the Irish gridders re- bounded from a poor preceeding season. The Celts also proved they were not lack- ing for defensive ability as evidenced by a victory over a tough Libbey Cowboy squad in which the defense sparkled.

In conclusion tothe successful campaign, 14 Fighting Irish merited All-City honors. Zolciak and McGurk also were honored at the annual foot- ball banquet. Zolciak was named most valuable player and jim McCurk was cited as the player with the most desire. Daugherty stressed the value of football as a means of acquiring team- work, sacrifice, and discipline and stated, "The greatest value of competitive activity is the learning of the value to excel.

Coachfim Cordiak and second squad watch anxiousbz from sidelines. Brown: E. Cazula' T Krzyrninskg' R. Flores: K. Millen' M. Braung Yf Bz'rz'e,' R. Nix,' Niezgoda,' D. Mowka: R. Arbing- en' M. Blankg C. Murphygf Daouslgf Palicki. Row 3: Mr. Hzghg T Leopolaff Koralewskzg' R. Napz'erala,' D. McCormick: B. Krall' R. Lawrenceg B. Hockrnang R. Mahoney: T Gramlingg C. Drennang G. Bolling R. Tobianskzg' B. Bolback: D. Peterg' C.

Frankowskzg' G. Wasielewskif Conling M Zoltanskzy M. Bolling f McKenzie' M. Boklanaf B. Wiener f Kozlowski' Yf Novak. Row 3: R Tanseyg R. Minon' D. Marlin: M Miller: L. Caroolsg B. Myers: D. Pettea' R. Langen- derfer. Row 4: Y. Horne, M Meeks: B. Smiikg D. Paul' B. DeVanna,' R. Skeahan: W Karmol' Gagnei' B. Beeklerg' G.

Row 4: fohn Newman fMGR. Mike Murrzezz clairn the twine ahcr victory Central over Si. McGurh, f. Haiey, D. Zolciak, M. Murncrz, j. Kozlowski Yi Schick, P foyce, f Sczychowshz f. Gintcr, S. Shay, T Boardman. Coaches: Mr. Don Lewis, Mr. S J - i -W'-0 faakay. James Zak Page 96 Mr. Dever has again proven an invalu- able aid to Central Catholic's sports program. Acting in his official post as Athletic Director, Mr. Dever is the one person most responsible forthe dynamic spirit characteristic of Central's teams and student body.

This first year ashead coach ofthe Fight- ing Irish grid team has been most satis- factory for Mr. Under his guidance the team, one ofthelightest in the city, compiled a record and took second place in the City League. Cordiak is also the boys' Physiology teacher. Zak, another first-year man, has won his place on Central's athletic staff.

He is the head golf coach and he assist- ed Mr. Cordiak with the football team and Mr. Lewis with the Varsity Basket- ball team. Zak is also a Physical Education teacher. Donald Lewis is well-known around Central. He has been a coach at CCHS for five years.

He made his debut as a backfield coach for the football team and has spent the past two seasons as head basketball coach. Lewis is also one of Central's Government teachers. Donald Lewis Mr. Joseph Wesfenkirchner Now in his third year ofcoaching varsity football at Central, Mr.

Westenkirchner has compiled an admirable record. The ex-pro, a former player with the Los Angeles Rams, is head coach of the base- ball team and assistant line coach and trainer for the gridiron team. Peter Benedict Mr, Piloseno has been on Central's faculty since , coaching the wrestling team to numerous cham- pionships and piloting the success- ful bowling team. This year's wrestling team captured third place in the state tourney and the bowl- ing team took the first place tro- phy in both divisions ofthe city league.

Daniel Piloseno Mr. Gajdostik is a man of many duties. This year he coached the cross country team and took charge of the school book- store. He also keeps his regular duties as a history teacher. Benedict is now completing his second year on the Irish coaching staff.

The assist- ant football and basketball coach is a grad- uate and two-year letter man ofthe Univer- sity of Toledo, class of He teaches boys' Physical Education. Dennis Galaydu In Mr. Galayda's first year at Central he has taken charge of the track team and has high hopes for this year's cindermen.

He was an assistant football coach under Mr. Galayda is also an instructor in history. Daniel Pilosizzo. Page 98 Plzz'! MeCartney in aelion on the mats. Daniel Piloseno gives Ed R0- nzito a word of encouragement, Tom fazwieekzgrapples forposiiion. Row 5: Richard Knzghzl David!

Row 2: ffm Matuzak, Pau! Row Mike Horne, Bi!! Row 4: Fm Renaraf Pki! Francis High School, March On March 10, Mr. Tim Dever, athletic director, presented letters to participants of at least six matches during league play. The helmsman guiding the champion "wood pushers" is Fr. Jude Rochford,who has coached Central's Chess teams since Page Lej? The GAL aims to develop the qualities of sportsmanship and athletic ability in girls, just as the varsity sports do for the boys.

The program includes lessons in tumbling, balance beam, table tennis, shufileboard, basketball, and soccer in the first semester. During the second semester the girls participate in modern dancing, volleyball, archery, softball and relays. The program rests in the very capable hands of Miss Frances Kronipak and Miss Maureen Gallagher, who have initiated several new activities this year.

They have also started an intramural program in basketball and tennis. The outstanding time ofthe year comes at the annual GAL banquet, when one girl is chosen to receive the ALI, - around Trophy for the most active sports participation. Page wan, A-W. V: is'. Changes forseen and unex- pected, announced by Monsignor Harrington each morning, affect the lives ot students at Central. Bailey i A at Patrick X. Higgins, vice president' Caro!

Boyce, secretary, Nancy Poole, treasurer. Jagodzinski,James W. M45 www rf W crfU 5'E' Zg sq? R, ,,,. X f'l ' I' ' y T:TT 1 :L1 gy. Kozlowski Page ' 1 Kathleen M. Wa EaeacfwE?! J I W1-it til'-fl-. Kw , fr ' ,,3g3s:zftf,1,:,,,f- in.. G5' , ,. T 'fs waxy Ear , Chagks Early, Barbara East 6 i"'. A -" -f ,ez. W 'il. VV gf ,:,-, 5. J,fff ' 'ef f. QI'f' V' 'V T f '. S 73 fl. Thomas, Kathleen T. Hail- ing from St. Richard's scholastic achievements have been highlighted by two city-wide math awards, two national Latin awards, and the honor of being named "High School Science Student of the Year.

Agnes parish, ranks first in the senior class. After graduation from Central, Esther will enter St. She is a member of St. KRUM St. Agnes 62 rv' Stanislaus M? Pearl St. Rowland-Hall Patrol 45 Patron Drive 4.

Lake St. Clement Ct. Park St. Hilda Guild 1, 4, Production Staff 3, 4. John Berchman Society 3, Math Club 4. Hall Patrol 45 Student Court 4. Weber St. Hudson St. Central Ave. Loowus, Rum Jackman Rd. Cove Blvd. JOAN 27 W. John Berch- man Society 45 Usher 4. Byrne Rd. Weber-Patron Drive 4. IO9th St. Page mural I, 2, 3, Track 4, Patron Drive 4. Lockwood-Football I. SC I, 2, Dancing Irish 4. Gallagher Rt. John L. Harrington Rt. Ignatius T.

Kelly Rt. Jerome E. Schmit Msgr. Albert Sprenger Rev Rev. Thomas Beauregard Herbert Kraus Rev. John J. Meehan Rev. Joseph Mrowca Rev. John P. Pasqualin Rev. Robert Reinhart Rev. Joseph D. Shenk Rev. Ernest Waechter, O. Arnerr Donald L. David W. Barry, Jr. Jack Becker, D. Robert Beckham Mr. Martin Bennett Mr. Berning Walter Bick J. Biggs Mrs. Vera Biggs Mr. Harry Biniak Mr. Bissonnette Mr. Thomas K. Blachowski Mr. Lou Block Mr.

Donald Boes Mr. Alvin Bogdanski Mrs. Alene Boldt Mr. Joseph Bonk Mrs. Bernadette Boratyn Barbara Borawski Mr. Frank Borawski Mr. Thomas Borer Mr. Anthony A. Bosch, Sr. Leonard Bromer "Bubbles" Mr. Don Buck William E. Buehler, Class of '64 Mrs. Carr Mr. Fredrick Cerrone Mr. Chmielewski Mr.

Robert MacFadden Mr. Cichy Mr. Crane Mr. Charles Cray Mr. Robert Cryan Mrs. Anthony Colisino Anne T. Collins Dr. James I. Collins Mr. Harold Corcoran Mr. Loyd Cousino Mr. Cuzynski Mr. Edmund Czarnecki Mr. Stan Czyzewski D. Kathy Dauer Mrs. Leona Davidson Josephine Dazewiecki Mr. Marshall R. Desmond Mr. Dillon Mr. Peter DiPaola Mr. Leo C. Dressel Mr. Richard C. Duffey R. Hemming Dullum Mr. William Dunn Mr.

Albert F. Earl Mr. Carl Eckhardt Mr. Eckstein Mr. Eggleston Mr. John Ehret Mr. John Eisenreich Mr. Gorman, two are now living: Mrs. Blakeley, and Mrs. Margaret Ordahl, a resident of Portland. As one of the councilmen of The Dalles, Mr. Blakeley was instrumental in securing for the municipality needed reforms and improvements and is always ready to serve his community to the extent of his ability. When he became county judge of Wasco and Hood River counties the public funds were depleted and there was an indebtedness of two hundred thousand dollars.

For eight years he was the incumbent of the office and during that period removed this burden of debt from the counties without increasing the taxation. During the World war he was chairman for four years of the committee in charge of the Red Cross activities in Wasco, Sherman, Wheeler and Gilliam counties and succeeded in raising a large amount of money for the organization.

Blakeley joined the Masonic order, with which his father was also affiliated, and has attained the thirty-second degree in the Scottish Rite Consistory. He is a past master of the blue lodge, past high priest of the chapter and past eminent commander of the commandery. For a year Mr. Blakeley was the executive head of the Rexall Club, an international association, which draws its members from the United States, Canada and Great Britain.

He was the first president of the club elected west of the Rockies and on his retirement from the office in was presented with a handsome watch, suitably inscribed, as a testimonial of appreciation of his services. Blakeley was the second president of the Oregon Pharmaceutical Association and served for fifteen years on the state board of pharmacy.

In addition to his attractive residence in The Dalles, he has a fine home at Seaside, where he spends a portion of each summer, and is one of the disciples of Izaak Walton. He is also a devotee of golf and an expert player. Worthy motives and high principles have actuated Mr. Blakeley at all points in his career and throughout eastern Oregon he is admired and respected. Blakeney, who was among the first settlers of Wasco county, performed his full part in the drama of early civilization here, and to a marked degree commanded the confidence and respect of his fellowmen.

He was there reared and educated and in the early '40s went to Illinois, where he engaged in farming. In he sold out there and, with a good outfit, including ox teams and covered wagons, started on the long journey across the plains to Oregon. The party was well provisioned at the start, but, owing to their generosity in sharing their food with other less fortunate than themselves, ran short and Mr.

Blakeney paid as much as a dollar each for biscuits for himself and family. They arrived in Oregon in the late fall of , and proceeded on to Cowlitz county, Washington, where he took up a homestead. They lived there until , when he sold out and came to The Dalles, Oregon, bringing the furniture and household goods, as well as twenty-five head of cattle, on a scow from the Cowlitz river to the lower Cascades.

They transported their stuff above the Cascades and there took a steamer to The Dalles. For several years Mr. Blakeney ran a pack train from The Dalles to the mines in eastern Oregon, in which he met with success, and later established a livery stable and draying business in The Dalles, which he conducted to the time of his death, February 20, His wife died in In December, , in Illinois, Mr. Blakeney was married to Miss Nancy Phelps, who was born in Danville, Vermillion county, Illinois, September 8, , and they became the parents of six children, namely: Hugh T.

Blakeney was a man of sterling character, energetic methods and sound judgment and during his active career took a deep interest in the progress and development of his city and community. Emma J. Blakeney was educated in the public schools at The Dalles and remained at home until her marriage, June 21, , to William T.

McClure, who was born in Missouri, April 18, He came to Wasco county with his family in an early day and as soon as old enough took up a preemption claim of one hundred and sixty acres, about four and a half miles east of Mosier. His father and brother also took claims in the same district and were the second family to settle in that locality. McClure's land was partly covered with oak grubs, which he cleared off and, after building a good house, he engaged in farming, raising grain, hay, cattle and horses.

He was successful in his operations and later bought sixty additional acres, a part of the Nathan Morris donation claim. This was good bottom land and on it he raised bountiful crops of alfalfa and potatoes, as well as asparagus. He was energetic and progressive in his methods and devoted himself closely to the operation of the farm to the time of his death, on March 13, To Mr. McClure were born six children: Mrs. Josephine Evans, who lives in Portland, Oregon, and is the mother of four children, Mrs.

Mabel Miller, Mrs. Blanche Durham, Robert M. Jessie A. Pearl Ellis, of Portland. McClure was a Mason and was a man of fine public spirit, taking an active interest in everything affecting the welfare of his community. He was particularly interested in educational matters and served for many years either as clerk or a member of the school board. William T. McClure, Jr. He raises good crops of hay and grain and potatoes, has three acres in asparagus, and also has a nice herd of dairy cows, a number of hogs and a large number of chickens.

The McClure homestead, which is located midway between Hood River and The Dalles, on the famous Columbia River highway, is finely situated, commanding a magnificent view of the majestic river, and is regarded as one of the best farms in this section of the valley. McClure and his mother are kindly and hospitable, give their earnest support to all local interests of value to the locality, and throughout the community are held in the highest esteem.

Clarke Publishing Company - ] Bolton, Grifford Virgil An interesting story of earnest endeavor, intelligently directed, constitutes the life record of Grifford Virgil Bolton, who was for many years actively and prominently associated with banking interests of The Dalles. Moreover, he was a native son of Oregon and throughout his life was a supporter of all the well devised plans and measures for the upbuilding of his city and state.

Both were natives of Virginia and representatives of old families of that state. At an early day they journeyed westward to become residents of Oregon and took up their abode on a farm in the vicinity of The Dalles on Fifteen Mile creek, where occurred the birth of their son Virgil.

He first served in a clerical capacity but bent every energy toward acquainting himself with the banking business in principle and detail and his thoroughness, his industry and loyalty won him promotions from time to time until he soon became cashier and one of the chief executive officers of the institution. He continued to hold that position until his death, which occurred on the 7th of March, , when he was but thirty-two years of age.

Although he passed away at a comparatively early age he had accomplished much more than many a man of twice his years. He had made for himself a most creditable position in financial circles, enjoying an unassailable reputation for business integrity as well as enterprise. On the 28th of March, , Mr. Bolton was united in marriage to Miss Nellie J.

French and they became the parents of two daughters: Carmel French, who is now the wife of Frank A. Ryder of Portland: and Nonearle French, who is at home with her mother. Bolton was always keenly interested in public affairs at The Dalles and recognition of his public spirit and his devotion to the general good was manifest in his election to the mayoralty. He belonged to the Masonic fraternity of which he was an exemplary representative and his entire life was characterized by those qualities which in every land and clime awaken confidence and respect.

His widow is now living at Alexandra Court, in Portland and is well known in the best circles of the Rose City. Married June 25, , to Agnes L. Educated at the common schools of Lafayette, Ore. Louis, Mo. Admitted to the Supreme Court of Oregon in Practiced law in Yamhill County until , when he removed to The Dalles and practiced his profession until May , when he was appointed Judge of Seventh Judicial District of Oregon, and has served ever since. Member K. Thirty-six years of his life have been spent in Wasco county, which numbers him among its foremost agriculturists, and his activities have also been of benefit to The Dalles.

There were seven children in the family, and Thomas Brogan is the only one now living. He was reared on his father's farm and received a limited education. Leaving home when a boy of twelve, he came to the United States alone in and obtained work in the coal mines of Pennsylvania. In he went to Liverpool, England, and for six months was on a sailing vessel bound for Australia. He landed in Melbourne, but soon after made the voyage to New Zealand, and was there engaged in mining for five years, developing a claim which yielded considerable gold.

Brogan then returned to Australia and devoted his attention to the sheep and cattle business. He also took contracts for the construction of buildings and roads and prospered in all of his ventures. In he disposed of his business in Australia and returned to the United States, identifying his interests with those of the Pacific northwest.

He purchased a large ranch in Wasco county and devoted his energies to the cultivation of the soil and the raising of livestock. Success attended his well directed labors and from time to time he increased his holdings, which now comprise sixteen thousand acres of land in Wasco county.

He is the largest individual landowner in the county, and runs about four thousand head of sheep and a large band of cattle, but the management of the place is now intrusted to his son, John Brogan. The father's various ranches are improved with good buildings and contain sixty-seven miles of fencing. The work is facilitated by modern equipment and the most advanced methods are utilized in cultivating the land and caring for the stock.

Brogan puts up six hundred tons of hay and alfalfa each year, and all of the grain and hay grown on the land is fed to the stock. In he moved to The Dalles, purchasing a desirable home on Webster street, and also owns several lots in the city. He is the largest stockholder of the Citizens National Bank of The Dalles, of which he was one of the organizers, but has steadfastly refused to become an officer of the institution, feeling that the preference should be given to a younger man.

Collopy, who was born in that country. Her parents, William and Elizabeth O'Brien Collopy, were natives of Ireland and became pioneer settlers of New Zealand, in which they spent the remainder of their lives. The father followed agricultural pursuits and was a prosperous stock raiser.

Collopy were born twelve children and three are now living: Bridget M. Brogan became the parents of twelve children, six of whom survive. Mary was born in New Zealand and has remained at home. Bridget, also a native of New Zealand, became the wife of J. Robinson and has a daughter, Lillian, who is now Mrs. Ned Wyke of Portland, Oregon. John was born in New Zealand, and resides in Antelope, Oregon. Susan is likewise a native of New Zealand, and has become the wife of Frank Weiss.

Katherine was born in Wasco county, and is part owner of a greenhouse at The Dalles. Frances Grace, also a native of Wasco county, is now Mrs. John Becker. She resides in Woodburn and is the mother of one child, Thomas Joseph Becker. For more than a half century Mr.

Brogan have journeyed together through life and in they celebrated their golden wedding anniversary. On that happy occasion a banquet was held at Hotel Dalles and there Mr. Brogan entertained about forty friends, from whom they received many beautiful gifts as well as congratulations.

Among the treasured possessions of Mr. Brogan is a rare onyx clock, tendered him by the premier of New Zealand and several of his most intimate friends at the time of his departure for the United States. Brogan exercises his right of franchise in support of the candidates and tenets of the republican party, and his public spirit has been demonstrated by effective work in behalf of good roads and schools. His has been a picturesque career, replete with interesting experiences.

He enjoys life and is esteemed for the qualities to which he owes his success. In May, , Mr. Brogan with Katherine and Frances, took a trip to Ireland, revisiting the old home. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Browne, Dr. He is now a successful chiropractor of The Dalles, where he is accorded a liberal patronage.

His parents were Christopher C. The Brownes were of old Pennsylvania stock and the great-grandfather of the Doctor became a pioneer of Missouri. The Mason family came from New England ancestry and were pioneers of Indiana. Christopher C. Browne removed with his family to Oregon when his son Daniel was but a small boy and settled in Salem. The latter acquired his preliminary education in the public schools of Salem and afterward pursued an academic course at Dallas, while his professional training was received in the Pacific Chiropractic College at Portland.

Following his graduation he took up active professional work in that city and there remained from until During his stay in Portland he was for three years secretary of the Oregon Chiropractic Association and published a magazine called The Drugless Review, devoted to the school of healing which he represents. He was one of a committee appointed to draft a bill legalizing the practice of chiropractic, which was passed by the legislature in His work in that connection required so much of his time that he was forced to permit The Drugless Review to die just as it was getting on a paying basis.

This unselfishness on his part is but an index of the character of the man. In Dr. Ingram, who had built up an extensive business in The Dalles, invited Dr. Browne was united in marriage to Miss Almona R. Daniels, a daughter of Francis M. Daniels, who was a merchant. They have one child, Elizabeth, a student in the Junior high school in The Dalles. Fraternally Dr. Browne is connected with the Elks and with the Knights of Pythias. He holds to the higest standards in his profession and his ability and enterprise have brought him prominently to the front.

Robert R. Butler, a member of one of the leading law firms of The Dalles, has become well known through his service as circuit judge, as state senator, and as one of the political leaders of Oregon. He was born September 24, , in Johnson county, Tennessee, and is a son of Dr. William H. One of Mr. Butler's ancestors figured prominently in events which shaped the early history of Johnson county and the town of Butler was named in his honor.

Colonel Roderick Randon Butler, the father of Dr. William R. Grayson, the maternal grandfather of Robert H. Butler, was also a gallant officer in the Union army and rose to the rank of colonel. Butler received the M. He is a physician of high standing and draws his patients from a wide area. To Dr. Butler were born ten children: Mrs. Baker, who lives in the state of Washington; Robert R. Sproles, who resides in North Carolina; C.

James Rivers, of North Carolina. Butler was reared in the town of Butler, which has been the home of the family for generations, and supplemented his public school training by attendance at the Holly Spring College. He received the degree of LL. For three years he followed his profession at Mountain City, Tennessee, and in came to Oregon, locating in Condon, Gilliam county, where he practiced for five years.

His legal acumen led to his election to the bench and during and he was circuit judge of Sherman, Wheeler and Gilliam counties. To each case brought before his tribunal he gave deep thought and study and the justice of his rulings proved his moral worth. As mayor of Condon he also made an excellent record and since has been a resident of The Dalles. He has a comprehensive knowledge of law and displays marked skill in its exposition. In he formed a partnership with Samuel E. Van Vactor, who is the senior member of the firm, and a large and important clientele denotes the confidence reposed in their ability as advocates and counselors.

Butler was married in and has a daughter, Elizabeth Annabel. She was born at The Dalles, June 30, , and is attending St. Helen's Hall in Portland, Oregon. A power in the ranks of the republican party, Mr. Butler was chosen presidential elector-at-large and in was made messenger to Washington, D.

In he was elected state senator without opposition and from until was a member of that law-making body. In he again became presidential elector for Oregon and in was recalled to the office of state senator. He served from until and exerted his influence in behalf of all constructive legislation. Butler is a Kiwanian and a past chancellor of the Knights of Pythias. His well developed powers have brought him to the front in his profession and the firmness, frankness and strength of his character have established him high in public regard.

His paternal grandfather was a native of Virginia and the family were among the early pioneers of Illinois. The Coy family was of Quaker stock and numbered among the earliest residents of Pennsylvania. In Polk Butler removed with his family to Oregon, settling at Dufur, Wasco county, at which time Roy was a lad of but four years.

He acquired his education in the graded schools of Dufur and in the high school at The Dalles. When quite young he entered into the mercantile business as a clerk in a general store at Boyd, Wasco county, and afterward turned his attention to ranching on Eight Mile creek, where he secured four hundred and forty acres, on which he planted an orchard and also engaged in raising cattle for the next ten years. He likewise became interested in the mercantile business at Boyd during the same period.

Butler was elected to the office of county commissioner and occupied that position for four years. In the meantime he took up his residence at The Dalles and upon the expiration of his term as commissioner he established the insurance agency which he still conducts. He is the representative of the Oregon Fire Relief Association for the district which embraces the counties of Morrow, Gilliam, Wasco, Hood River and Sherman and has placed his company upon a sound basis in this territory, having developed a business of gratifying and substantial proportions.

Butler was married to Miss Ethel Southern, a daughter of C. Southern, a pioneer farmer of Wasco county. They have two children: Melva May and Roy Dale, both high school pupils. Butler has a sister, Mrs. Edward Griffin, of Wasco county, and two brothers: the Rev. Butler, a missionary in South Africa and E. Butler, living at The Dalles. Butler gives his political allegiance to the democratic party, yet he cannot be said to be a politician in the sense of office seeking.

The only public office he has filled besides that of county commissioner was that of postmaster at Boyd. He is an active member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and has filled all of the chairs in the local organization. The Butler family has long been represented in Oregon, for Roy D. Butler is a nephew of Daniel Butler, who came to this state in the '40s and is frequently mentioned in history as one of the founders of the state and as a fearless Indian fighter.

Under other conditions Roy D. Butler is just as loyal to the best interests of Oregon and is justly accounted one of the representative citizens of The Dalles. Collector of Internal Revenue for the District and State of Oregon, is one of those quiet, unassuming gentlemen, whom we sometimes meet in the walks of public life, and realize the fact that in his case at least the office has sought the man, not the man the office, as is too generally the case.

He is a native of Michigan and was born in He came to Oregon in and read law with Hon. Wilson, afterwards Representative in Congress from this State. He was admitted to the bar in and opened an office at Salem. He was a member of the House from Marion County in , and in was elected State Senator from the same county. In he received the appointment of United States District Attorney. At the expiration of his term of service in this capacity in , owing to failing health, he removed to Eastern Washington Territory, and there engaged in the stock business until , when he moved to The Dalles, and, in partnership with Hon.

Dunbar, resumed the practice of law. In he was elected Presidential Elector on the Republican ticket and was a participant in the memorable Electoral College of that year, when poor Cronin - peace to his ashes - was so prominent a factor, and when Oregon's vote elected President Hayes.

In May, , he received his present appointment. Cartwright is a gentleman who is highly esteemed by all who know him and is regarded as a man of sterling integrity. He is tall and spare built, smooth face, save the mustache, sharp features, clear peaceful eye, and black hair. He is a warm personal friend and one that never forgets a favor. He is courteous, genial and generous. As a public officer, he is attentive and obliging and in every way efficient.

Helm, of the M. Team] Cates, Daniel L. Conscientious and efficient, Daniel L. Cates has thoroughly demonstrated his worth as a public servant and for eleven years has been city recorder of The Dalles. He is a loyal Oregonian and a member of one of the honored, pioneer families of the state. The following account of his career was written by Fred Lockley and published in the Oregon Journal under date of November 29, 'I was born in a log cabin on the Long Tom, near Starr's Point, in Benton county, May 7, ,' said Mr.

His father's name was Alexander Cates. His mother's maiden name was Nancy Phipps and she was also a Kentuckian. My father left the Blue Grass state in , when he was nineteen years of age, and went to Missouri with an uncle, John Newton. She was a daughter of Daniel Grice, who went from that state to Kentucky and later located in Linn county, Missouri. Father and his brother-in-law, Daniel Grice, built houses.

In those days all lumber, including the flooring, was dressed by hand. Father had taken up a place in Linn county and in addition to working at his trade, raised corn and tobacco. Flournoy and his relatives. They took the usual emigrant route during the first part of the trip and went by way of the cut-off to Fort Hall. The Nemaha river was crossed on rafts built by members of the party and at Salt creek they were detained for two days.

There were few accidents on the trip, though in the early part of it an exciting incident occurred in the Pawnee country. One morning a man came riding toward them at top speed on a fine grey horse and warned them of Indians who had attacked a train in advance of them. Three parties of emigrants had left Missouri at about the same time, the Flournoy train, the one attacked by Indians and what was called the Ohio train. The last consisted of forty men without a woman or child among them.

There were two Indians in sight in an elevated position, signaling to the band that led in the attack and informing them of the movements of the whites. The Ohio train rushed in from the rear on horseback and soon reached the Indians. The wagons of the Flournoy train were placed in a double row and the party advanced as rapidly as possible. After robbing the women of their jewelry and taking as much food and clothing as they could lay hands on, the Indians escaped and no one was injured.

The Flournoy train followed the route to the crossing of the Portneuf, which runs into the Snake river, and then traveled to the south, crossing the Raft river. As they followed its course they came to that remarkable creation of nature, the Thousand Spring valley, containing those famous soda springs which vary in temperature from boiling hot to ice cold and which cover an area of several square miles.

Proceeding through what was afterwards called the Landers cut-off, they came out on the Green river and followed its course to St. Mary's river. After passing the three Humboldt lakes they 1 were warned by a note tacked up by the roadside of danger from Indians. Two men had been killed and a little farther on the body of an Indian was found lying in the road.

At the foot of the last lake two roads separate, one leading to the Carson river and the other to the Truckee river. The party followed the Truckee road and about September 17, , camped where the Donner party endured their sufferings and where some met their tragic deaths in They could see plainly where the trees had been cut down and limbs cut off of others ten or twelve feet above the ground, showing how deep the snow must have been when they camped on it.

Later he took up a claim on Poor Man creek, finding dirt which paid him thirty dollars a day with pick and pan. After working the claim for a month the heavy snow drove him out and he went back to Nevada City, where he spent the winter. Next spring he found a claim from which. In company with three other miners he engaged in prospecting on Kanaha creek. They struck a claim where they took out fifty dollars a day.

As soon as their grub was gone they went back to Nevada City and brought out twelve hundred pounds of supplies on seven pack horses. They found their claim had been jumped, so they struck out down the creek and struck another claim even richer than the first. On July 4, , the four of them took out over six hundred dollars. They averaged about one hundred dollars a day.

My father's partners became dissatisfied and thought they could find a richer ground, so he bought them out and worked the claim until late in the fall of Downieville, the nearest post office, was twelve miles distant by mountain trail. He worked on a hotel and was paid ten dollars a day. After the hotel was built he went to Sacramento and from there to San Francisco, where he bought a ticket for Panama. He had to pay sixteen dollars for the use of a mule to ride twenty-six miles across the isthmus to connect with a boat.

After he had ridden about two-thirds of the way he overtook a miner, who offered him eight dollars for the use of the mule for the remaining eight miles, so father walked the rest of the way. He had to pay a fare of ten dollars on a rowboat which took him to the Atlantic side of the isthmus.

The natives were having a revolution and told the Californians to keep off the streets so they wouldn't get hurt. However, the Americans wanted to see what was going on, so one of them was killed, as well as a number of natives.

The American consul sent out to the Cherokee and Ohio, which were anchored in the stream, and got a brass six-pounder and an iron cannon. He put these so he could sweep the street and told the natives that if they fought any more or killed any more Americans he would turn the cannon loose, so they decided to quit fighting. He bought a steerage ticket for New York for fifty dollars. The first cabin ticket was seventy-five dollars. After he got on the boat he paid the purser five dollars extra to sit at the first cabin table and have a cabin like the first class passengers.

The Ohio was a sidewheeler and there were about two hundred returning gold miners aboard. At Havana they transferred to the Georgia for New Orleans. In the Crescent city he paid sixteen dollars for a ticket to St.

Louis and made the trip of about twelve-hundred miles on the Patrick Henry. At St. Louis he took passage on a small boat called the Lewis F. Linn, for Brunswick, the great tobacco trading point on the Missouri, traveling with Washington Leach, who had been his companion in the mines of California and on the returning sea voyage.

At Brunswick he hired a rig to drive to Linneus, where he had left mother. When he arrived there he found that his father-in-law had sold out and that mother had gone to Jive with Uncle Newton. He hired a man to drive him out to the Newton place. He bought a house and lot for three hundred dollars and got a job as carpenter at a dollar and a quarter a day. In the party were father's cousin, Ambrose Newton, who brought his wife and three children. He had two wagons, with four yoke of oxen to each, and was accompanied by three young men, who came along to work for their board.

Father had one wagon, three yoke of oxen and two cows. In his wagon were himself, mother, Sarah, the baby, and a young man named Washington Ward, who went along to work for his hoard. The members of the train chose father as their captain because of his previous experience in crossing the plains.

The emigrants drove to St. Joseph, Missouri, and thence up the river, which they crossed at Council Bluffs. They took the south side of the Platte. A large party of Pawnee Indians accompanied them almost to Ash Hollow. There my father and Mr. Wiley went on a hunting expedition. Father killed a big buffalo and they loaded their horses with meat. When they were hunting a hail storm came up which was so severe that the cattle couldn't face it.

They turned around and drifted with the storm. On the Bear river in Utah six saddle horses were stolen. Father lost a good horse. He said that when he and Fowler were looking for the horses they met an Indian on a cayuse,while his squaw was mounted on a big roan horse.

Father had a rifle with inlaid silver work and the Indian tried to take it. Father pulled out his Colt revolver and the Indian changed his mind, and the last father saw of him and the squaw they were making their horses go as fast as they could.

The next day the party arrived at Steamboat Springs, where an Englishman had a trading station. After crossing the Malheur river they went down the Snake and struck Burnt river at a point where Huntington was afterward built. They passed through the Powder River valley below the place where Baker City is now located and there father suffered from blood poisoning, which endangered his life. After coming into the Grande Ronde valley they passed Medical lake and in the Blue mountains stayed over night at Lee's encampment, now Bingham Springs.

Then they proceeded down the Wild Horse through what is now the Umatilla Indian reservation, finding Indians there who were raising corn and potatoes. After reaching Deschutes they made their way down Ten-Mile creek and thence to Tygh valley. They passed through the Barlow tollgate and down Laurel Hill, soon afterward coming to the Big Sandy valley.

On September 9 they reached Foster's famous ranch and on the 11th crossed the Willamette at Portland on a capstan and two horses. In father and Fred Flora took a contract to get out timbers and build a barn for Captain Doty in Yamhill county. Father next built a granary for Mr.

McLeod on Tualatin plains. They paid him seven dollars a day and he took his pay in flour, which he sold in Portland. From Tualatin plains he moved to the Long Tom, in Beaten county, where he bought, for three hundred dollars, a quarter section.

Forty acres of the tract had been fenced and there was a good house on the place. Father bought a land entry of one hundred and sixty acres for one hundred and twenty dollars and took up the adjoining quarter section. The first loom on the Long Tom was constructed by father, who built it for Mrs. He was paid forty dollars for the job. Ferguson wove homespun cloth. He bought a new wagon, a span of mules and ninety head of cattle.

He hired John Florence to drive the stock over the Barlow trail to the Dennis Maloney place, near the present site of Dufur. Father traded our place to Mrs. Upton for two large mares, Pet and Pigeon. Afterward father moved to Eight-Mile creek, purchasing a farm from "Big Steve" Edwards, and there mother died in the fall of , leaving two sons and two daughters, one a baby less than a year old. The hard winter of nearly wiped father off the map financially.

He had only thirty head of stock left when the snow went off in the spring. Susan Griffin, my mother's sister, died shortly alter we children went there. Father and Fred Flora had started in the spring of with a herd of cattle for the Orofino mines in Idaho. My sister did the housework. When J. Broadwell bought the place my sister Sarah and I stayed with him for two years. My brother Willie went to Idaho with my father, who purchased a mine in the Boise basin and later moved to Rocky Bar, in Alturas county, that state.

He was absent two years and brought home fourteen hundred dollars. He built a mill on Fifteen-Mile creek near the Meadows, also owning a mill on the Columbia, opposite Wind river, and this he later sold to Joseph T. While operating the plant he built a small steamboat to handle the lumber. After disposing of his mills father worked for a time at his trade and aided in constructing the shoe factory in North Dalles.

In father married Mrs. Elizabeth Herbert, a widow, who had two children: Mrs. Jane Sherer, deceased; and George A. Herbert, now a resident of Baker, Oregon. The mother of these children passed away at The Dalles and father's death occurred at Cascade Locks, Oregon, in My sister Sarah, the oldest of the family, was born in Missouri in On May 10, , she became the wife of William Frizzell, and her demise occurred in at Cascade Locks.

My brother William was born in Benton county, Oregon, in and is now living in Oakland, California. I was the third child and my full name is Daniel Lycurgus Cates. My sister Susan was born February 14, , in Wasco county, Oregon. She became the wife of W. Wilson, a well known attorney of Portland, Oregon, and died February 14, Cates attended the public schools at The Dalles and one of his instructors was Professor S. From until he was in the employ of his father, who at that time was operating a saw mill above Cascade Locks, where the town of Wyeth is now located.

His lumber yard at The Dalles was managed by Daniel L. Cates, who afterward became a bookkeeper for John H. Larsen, a dealer in wool and hides. Cates remained until , when he was appointed a deputy under George Herbert, sheriff of Wasco county, and acted in that capacity for four years. In he was elected sheriff and served for two years, thoroughly justifying the trust reposed in him.

In August, , he located at Cascade Locks, opening a general store, which he conducted during the construction of the locks. About five hundred men were at work and in the locks were completed by J. At that time Mr. Cates disposed of the business and established a drug store, of which he was the proprietor for two years. Crossing the Columbia river, he purchased a tract of three hundred and twenty acres in Skamania county, Washington, and applied himself to the task of clearing the land.

He cut down the timber, which he sawed into logs, and disposed of them at a good figure. A few years later he sold the ranch and in November, , returned to The Dalles. Prosperity had attended his various undertakings and for a time he lived retired. In he was prevailed upon to reenter the arena of public affairs and has since been city recorder.

His duties are discharged with characteristic thoroughness and fidelity and his continued retention in the office proves that his services are appreciated. On October 9, , Mr. Cates is the ninth in line of descent from Jan Stryker, who was born in Holland in and emigrated from Ruinen, a village in the province of Drenthe, with his wife, two sons and four daughters, arriving at New Amsterdam in The mother of these children was Lambertje Seubering, who died several years after the family came to America.

She survived her husband, who was a man of prominence in colonial days. In he was elected chief magistrate of Midworet and according to the Colonial History of New York" he was a member of the embassy sent from New Amsterdam to the lord mayors in Holland.

The history also states that he became a representative in the general assembly on April 10, , a member of the Hempstead convention of , and was commissioned captain of a military company on October 25, His brother, who also came to this country, was named Jacobus Garretsen Stryker. Jan Stryker and his first wife had a large family. She died June 17, , and his demise occurred June 11, He was high sheriff of Kings county, Long Island; judge of the court from until , and was made captain of a foot company in On June 1, , he purchased four thousand acres of land on Millstone river in Somerset county, New Jersey.

It does not appear that he ever lived on this property but his sons, Jacob and Barends, and his grandsons, the four sons of Jan, removed from Flatbush to New Jersey. Pieter and Annetje Barends Stryker had eleven children.

Jan Stryker, their third child, was born August 6, , and in married Margarita Schenck. She was baptized June 2, , and married February 17, Her death occurred July 15, , and her husband passed away August 17, He was a member of the Kings County militia.

Jan Stryker had nine children by his first wife and five by the second. Pieter Stryker, the eldest child of his first wife, was born September 14, , at Flatbush, Long island, and about married Antje Deremer. Death summoned him on December 28, He had eleven children by his first wife and one by the second.

His son, John Stryker, the eighth child of his first union, was born March 2, , and became captain of the Somerset County militia but was afterwards attached to the state troops. His marriage with Lydia Cornell was solemnized November 13, , and on March 25, , he responded to the final summons.

His wife was born March 15, , and died November 4, John and Lydia Cornell Stryker were the parents of ten children. James I. She was born November 5, , and died about in Cayuga county, New York, while his demise occurred December 14, Their family numbered eight children.

Stryker died December 2, , in Vancouver, Washington, and her husband's death occurred in that city on December 21, In their family were four daughters, of whom Alice is the eldest. By her marriage to Daniel L. Cates she became the mother of four children. The fourth child died in infancy. Cates takes a keen interest in fraternal affairs and is a charter member of The Dalles Lodge of the Knights of Pythias, in which he has filled all of the chairs.

In all matters of citizenship he is loyal, progressive and public-spirited and his personal qualities are such as make for popularity. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Chrisman, Levi No public official of Wasco county enjoys a higher reputation than Levi Chrisman, who has served continuously as sheriff for a period of twenty-two years, and represents the third generation of the family in Oregon.

In , when their son Campbell E. Margaret Chrisman there passed away in and her husband remained on the ranch until He then sold the place and came to The Dalles, where he lived retired until his death a few years later. Campbell E. Chrisman was educated in the public schools of Dayton and remained at home until , when he moved to The Dalles.

For a time he leased the ranch near Dufur and about purchased the property. He cultivated the farm until and then sold the tract. Returning to The Dalles, he became a dealer in grain and conducted a grocery and a feed store. Catering to both the wholesale and retail trades, he established a large patronage and continued the business until , when he retired. He served on the school board and manifested a deep interest in matters touching the welfare and progress of his community.

Her parents, John E. Her father was a Christian minister and one of the early circuit riders of Oregon, traveling on horseback to isolated districts in order to spread the Gospel. He passed away early in the '70s and his widow survived him by ten years.

The demise of Campbell E. Chrisman occurred May 15, , at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Taylor, a resident of The Dalles, and on February 20, , his widow was called to her final rest. To their union were born seven children. Lulu, the eldest, was born on the homestead near Dufur and is the widow of Henry Taylor.

She has two children: Mrs. Lulu P. Hugh Chrisman is sheriff of Sherman county and has been the incumbent of the office for eight years. Levi is the next of the family and his brother Frank lives in Oakland, California. Emma, the seventh in order of birth, died in infancy. For four years he was a railroad employe and in ventured in business for himself at The Dalles.

In partnership with his brother Frank he opened a meat market, which he conducted successfully for sixteen years, also dealing in live stock. He was elected sheriff of Wasco county on the republican ticket in and his long retention in this office is an eloquent testimonial to the quality of his service. In the discharge of his important duties he is conscientious, efficient and fearless and during his tenure of office the percentage of crime in the country has been appreciably lowered.

His record is unsullied and in length of service has never been equaled by any other sheriff in the state. Chrisman married Miss Edna C. Martin, who was born in Illinois, and died February 13, She had become the mother of five children. Edna, the first born, is the wife of Robert P. Johnson, of Portland, Oregon, and has two daughters, Margaret and Virginia.

The other children of Mr. Chrisman are: Mrs. Neva M. Rasmussen, of Seattle, Washington; Robert, who was admitted to the bar in and is practicing in Wallowa, Oregon; Cecil, who is a junior at the University of Oregon and is preparing to enter the legal profession; and Elsie, who was graduated from the high school at The Dalles and is taking a course in a Portland business college.

The children are natives of The Dalles and all have received the benefit of a good education. In the local lodge of the Knights of Pythias he has filled all of the chairs and is also affiliated with the Woodmen of the World and the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. He has a wide acquaintance and draws his friends from all walks of life, possessing those qualities which inspire strong and enduring regard. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Clausen, F. Agricultural progress in the Columbia River Valley has received marked impetus from the enterprising spirit and systematic labors of F.

Clausen, a pioneer wheat grower of Wasco county and one of its large land owners. Having accumulated a sum more than sufficient for his needs, he is spending the evening of life in ease and comfort and resides in an attractive home at The Dalles. He was born February 1, , in Kolding, Denmark, and his parents, Nicolai and Karen Clausen, were life-long residents of that country.

His father's demise occurred in and the mother long survived him, passing away in They had eight children, four of whom attained years of maturity: F. Clausen received a common school education and laid aside his textbooks at the age of sixteen, as his assistance was needed on the home farm. His country was engaged in war with Germany, which took the province of Schleswig-Holstein as indemnity from Denmark.

The family lived near the boundary line dividing the two countries and two brothers of F. Clausen served in the Danish army. Being unwilling to swear allegiance to Germany, he left his native land and on April 7, , sailed from Hamburg on a vessel which bore him to New York city. He then purchased a ticket for San Francisco, California, and for a period of four years was engaged in dairying near Sacramento.

In partnership with his brother James, he operated a wheat ranch in the Sacramento valley for two years and then decided to migrate to Oregon. Selling his interest in the ranch to his brother, he came to The Dalles in the spring of and soon afterward filed on a homestead on the Deschutes river, twenty miles southeast of the town.

He proved up on the land and later secured a timber claim. As fast as his resources permitted Mr. Clausen increased his holdings and is now the owner of three thousand acres of land in Wasco county. A tract of one thousand acres is devoted to the growing of grain and the balance is used for pasture and stock farming.

Endowed with keen powers of discernment, Mr. Clausen was the first man to recognize the fact that grain could be produced in this locality and the old cattle and sheep raisers were averse to the idea, saying that the land could be utilized only for grazing purposes owing to the dryness of the soil. In he planted his first crop of wheat, which was destroyed by grasshoppers, but the next season he had better luck and in forty-five years of farming has had only one failure.

His equipment is up-to-date and the fields are divided by well kept fences. A modern house has been erected on the ranch, which is further improved with substantial barns and other outbuildings. The place is well irrigated and water from the spring is pumped to the house and other buildings.

Clausen follows diversified farming and has found that the best results are obtained by summer fallowing. The soil yields good crops and he keeps about fifty head of horses for the farm work. His cattle and hogs are of high grade and he owns about one hundred and twenty-five head of stock, which he allows to run in the wheat fields after the grain is harvested. Every detail of the work has been carefully planned and the ranch has proven a profitable investment because it is operated on an economic basis.

Clausen is a firm believer in scientific methods of a culture and has demonstrated their value as factors in productiveness. In he leased the ranch to his sons, James and Otto, who are successfully managing the place and also own valuable stock farms. Since his retirement Mr. Clausen has lived at The Dalles in a desirable home, which he purchased in , and during the busy season supervises the work on his farm.

He has proven his faith in the future of The Dalles by judicious investments in real estate and is a stockholder in the Wrentham and Columbia Warehouse Companies, while he also owns a half-interest in two substantial business blocks, which were recently erected in the city. It was during their honeymoon that Mr. Clausen made the trip to Oregon, traveling to The Dalles in a wagon drawn by four horses. Theirs proved an ideal union, which was terminated by the death of Mrs.

Clausen on October 17, In their family were eight children, all of whom were born on the old homestead in Wasco county and received liberal educational advantages. Arthur, the first born, died at the age of six years. James is married and has one child, Edna. Cora is deceased. Edna completed a course in The Dalles high school and was graduated from a nurses' training school maintained by one of the largest hospitals in Cleveland, Ohio.

She is anaesthesian at The Dalles Hospital and also acts as housekeeper for her father. Otto is married and has two children, Fred and Virginia. During the World war he enlisted in the United States Engineers Corps, becoming sergeant of his company, and later was promoted to the position of chief engineer. He spent two years overseas and is now filling a responsible position in Chicago, Illinois.

Emma supplemented her high school education by attendance at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, from which she was graduated. For two years she was a student at the University of Washington and is now dietician at Dornbacher Hospital in Portland. Clara, the youngest child, died at the age of seven years.

His fraternal relations also extend to the Woodmen of the World. For eight years he was one of the commissioners of Wasco county and during his tenure of office the county built and paid for the finest courthouse in the state, with the exception of the one in Portland. A strong advocate of educational advancement, Mr. Clausen was a member of the school board of his district for twenty-four years and has always evinced a keen desire to cooperate in movements for the general good.

A man of stable purpose and marked strength of character, he has sown wisely and well and his life has been a succession of harvests. For nearly a half century he has resided in Wasco county, where he has a wide acquaintance, and enjoys to the fullest extent the esteem and confidence of all with whom he has been associated. Clarke Publishing Company - ] Collins, John Wesley John Wesley Collins is one of the most active young business men of The Dalles, where he is conducting a prosperous wall paper and paint business.

He was born in Jefferson county, Tennessee, in , his parents being William H.

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