florentia center nicosia betting

lions bears betting predictions nba

When we talk about football, we usually think first of the NFL. When you look at the global numbers, this figure nearly doubles. InSuper Bowl XLIX only generated about 10, more bets than the most heavily bet college football game:compared to ,

Florentia center nicosia betting barcelona vs almeria betting preview

Florentia center nicosia betting

Oncologist, Aug 19; 22 1. Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser. Neuro Oncol, Aug 19; 18 New targeted treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer - role of nivolumab. Biologics, Aug 19; J Gastrointest Cancer, Aug 20; 47 4. FGFR1 inhibition in lung squamous cell carcinoma: questions and controversies. Cell Death Discov, Jan 01; 1. Invest New Drugs, Aug 27; 34 6. Neoantigen-based cancer immunotherapy. Ann Transl Med, Aug 27; 4 Towards tumor immunodiagnostics. Helen Kourea, Vassiliki Kotoula.

DNA damage, tumor mutational load and their impact on immune responses against cancer. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer perspective on designing clinical trials with immune therapeutics.

Lung Cancer, Aug 28; Immune checkpoint inhibitors: the new frontier in non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. Onco Targets Ther, Aug 31; 9. GBM-associated mutations and altered protein expression are more common in young patients. Strategies to modulate the immune system in breast cancer: checkpoint inhibitors and beyond. Mutational signatures in esophageal adenocarcinoma define etiologically distinct subgroups with therapeutic relevance.

J Clin Oncol, Sep 08; 34 Advances in lung cancer with a focus on ATS updates. Jinghong Li, Mark M Fuster. J Thorac Dis, Sep 09; 8 Suppl 7. Addressing intra-tumoral heterogeneity and therapy resistance. Brad Rybinski, Kyuson Yun. Oncotarget, Sep 10; 7 From the era of ineffective tumor vaccines to a future with effective immunotherapy. J Thorac Dis, Sep 14; 8 8. MHC-multimer guided isolation of neoepitopes specific T cells as a potent-personalized cancer treatment strategy.

Roni Bareli, Cyrille J Cohen. Oncoimmunology, Sep 14; 5 7. Current tools for predicting cancer-specific T cell immunity. High-content molecular profiling of T-cell therapy in oncology. Ruslan Novosiadly, Michael Kalos. Mol Ther Oncolytics, Sep 15; 3. Update in Lung Cancer Immunotherapy for prostate cancer: False promises or true hope? Cancer, Sep 21; Breast cancer genome and transcriptome integration implicates specific mutational signatures with immune cell infiltration.

Whole-exome sequencing and immune profiling of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma with fully annotated clinical follow-up. Clin Cancer Res, Oct 05; 22 J Cancer, Oct 05; 7 Multiparametric profiling of non-small-cell lung cancers reveals distinct immunophenotypes. Claudin-low bladder tumors are immune infiltrated and actively immune suppressed.

Synergy of radiotherapy and PD-1 blockade in Kras-mutant lung cancer. Recent advances in T-cell engineering for use in immunotherapy. Preeti Sharma, David M Kranz. FRes, Oct 06; 5. Cancer cell-binding peptide fused Fc domain activates immune effector cells and blocks tumor growth.

Oncotarget, Oct 08; 7 Spotlight on pembrolizumab in non-small cell lung cancer: the evidence to date. Pankit Vachhani, Hongbin Chen. Onco Targets Ther, Oct 08; 9. The promise of PD-1 inhibitors in gastro-esophageal cancers: microsatellite instability vs. Zhaohui Jin, Harry H Yoon. J Gastrointest Oncol, Oct 18; 7 5. Genomic characterization of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Neoantigens in immunotherapy and personalized vaccines: Implications for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer: innovation and implementation, June 16th and 17th , Trondheim, Norway. PD-L1 expression in tonsillar cancer is associated with human papillomavirus positivity and improved survival: implications for anti-PD1 clinical trials.

Novel algorithmic approach predicts tumor mutation load and correlates with immunotherapy clinical outcomes using a defined gene mutation set. The head and neck cancer immune landscape and its immunotherapeutic implications. Acquired resistance to anti-PD1 therapy: checkmate to checkpoint blockade? Genome Med, Oct 27; 8 1. Dendritic Cells and Cancer Immunity. Alycia Gardner, Brian Ruffell. Trends Immunol, Oct 30; 37 Structural basis of checkpoint blockade by monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy.

Checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer: latest developments and clinical potential. Ther Adv Med Oncol, Nov 02; 8 6. Recent advances in understanding antitumor immunity. FRes, Nov 03; 5. Vassiliki A Boussiotis. N Engl J Med, Nov 03; Alexandra Snyder, Jedd D Wolchok. Cancer Discov, Nov 04; 6 Oncologist, Nov 09; 22 1. Gene-expression profiling to predict responsiveness to immunotherapy. Cancer Gene Ther, Nov 12; 24 3. Urol Oncol, Nov 12; 34 Immune checkpoint blockade in small cell lung cancer: is there a light at the end of the tunnel?

Jordi Remon, Benjamin Besse. Tumor immune microenvironment characterization in clear cell renal cell carcinoma identifies prognostic and immunotherapeutically relevant messenger RNA signatures. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Ambiguous human papillomavirus status, elevated p16, and deleted retinoblastoma 1.

The challenges of tumor genetic diversity. Cancer, Nov 20; 6. Immunotherapy and lung cancer: from therapeutic cancer vaccination to novel approaches. Valentina Mazza, Federico Cappuzzo. J Thorac Dis, Nov 22; 8 Tumor vaccines and cellular immunotherapies.

Ann Transl Med, Nov 22; 4 Suppl 1. Direct identification of clinically relevant neoepitopes presented on native human melanoma tissue by mass spectrometry. Inactivation of Capicua drives cancer metastasis. Next generation predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibition. Cancer Metastasis Rev, Nov 23; 36 1. Comparison of exome-based HLA class I genotyping tools: identification of platform-specific genotyping errors. J Hum Genet, Nov 25; 62 3. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors.

Cancers Basel , Nov 26; 8 Looking beyond the cancer cell for effective drug combinations. Genome Med, Nov 27; 8 1. Validation of biomarkers to predict response to immunotherapy in cancer: Volume I - pre-analytical and analytical validation. Circulating tumour DNA analysis demonstrates spatial mutational heterogeneity that coincides with disease relapse in myeloma.

The role of immune checkpoint inhibition in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol Res Pract, Dec 03; 3. Lung Cancer Biomarkers. Pamela Villalobos, Ignacio I Wistuba. Predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy. Lancet Oncol, Dec 08; 17 Nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer CheckMate : results of an open-label, phase 1, multicohort study.

Molecular pathology of cancer: how to communicate with disease. Atezolizumab as first-line treatment in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma with amplification of PD-L1: exceptional response to anti-PD1 therapy.

Prediction and prioritization of neoantigens: integration of RNA sequencing data with whole-exome sequencing. Non-small cell lung cancer is characterised by a distinct inflammatory signature in serum compared with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Target Oncol, Dec 21; 12 2. Immune response and long-term clinical outcome in advanced melanoma patients vaccinated with tumor-mRNA-transfected dendritic cells.

Genomic landscape of colorectal cancer in Japan: clinical implications of comprehensive genomic sequencing for precision medicine. Autologous reconstitution of human cancer and immune system in vivo. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy.

Cell Res, Dec 28; 27 1. Immune targets and neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy and precision medicine. J Immunother Cancer, Dec 30; 4. Checkpoint Inhibitors for Advanced Bladder Cancer. Edward M Messing. Bladder Cancer, Dec 31; 2 4. DNA sequencing technologies: Elaine R Mardis. Nat Protoc, Jan 06; 12 2. Molecular chess? Hallmarks of anti-cancer drug resistance. Ian A Cree, Peter Charlton. BMC Cancer, Jan 07; 17 1. Dynamic versus static biomarkers in cancer immune checkpoint blockade: unravelling complexity.

Immunotherapy: incorporation in the evolving paradigm of renal cancer management and future prospects. Oncotarget, Jan 07; 8 PD-L1 expression in lung cancer. Chad Tang, Joe Y Chang. J Thorac Dis, Jan 10; 8 Pan-cancer survey of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers across the Cancer Genome Atlas. Dev Dyn, Jan 11; 3. T cell exhaustion: from pathophysiological basics to tumor immunotherapy. Cell Commun Signal, Jan 12; 15 1.

Noelia Purroy, Catherine J Wu. Reactivation of dormant anti-tumor immunity - a clinical perspective of therapeutic immune checkpoint modulation. Cell Commun Signal, Jan 20; 15 1. Elements of cancer immunity and the cancer-immune set point. Daniel S Chen, Ira Mellman. Nature, Jan 20; Tumor aneuploidy correlates with markers of immune evasion and with reduced response to immunotherapy.

Science, Jan 21; New discoveries in the molecular landscape of bladder cancer. Clinical and immunologic correlates of response to PD-1 blockade in a patient with metastatic renal medullary carcinoma. Keisuke Kataoka, Seishi Ogawa. Oncoscience, Jan 21; 3 Precision medicine in immune checkpoint blockade therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Xiaoming Liu, William C Cho. Clin Transl Med, Jan 22; 6 1. T-cell receptor-engineered T cells for cancer treatment: current status and future directions.

Protein Cell, Jan 22; 9 3. Genetic instability and increased mutational load: which diagnostic tool best direct patients with cancer to immunotherapy? Cancer J, Jan 24; 23 1. Cancer Discov, Jan 27; 7 2. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer. Rapid tumor regression in an Asian lung cancer patient following personalized neo-epitope peptide vaccination.

T-helper cell receptors from long-term survivors after telomerase cancer vaccination for use in adoptive cell therapy. Neutrophils dominate the immune cell composition in non-small cell lung cancer. Transl Lung Cancer Res, Feb 06; 5 6. Metastatic lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung treated with nivolumab: a case report and focused review of literature. A meta-analysis of HLA peptidome composition in different hematological entities: entity-specific dividing lines and "pan-leukemia" antigens.

Development of a gene panel for next-generation sequencing of clinically relevant mutations in cell-free DNA from cancer patients. Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function. Next steps in immuno-oncology: enhancing antitumor effects through appropriate patient selection and rationally designed combination strategies. Ann Oncol, Feb 09; 28 1. Applications of Immunogenomics to Cancer. Cell, Feb 12; 4. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy.

Endocr Relat Cancer, Feb 15; 24 4. Analysis of the prognostic role of an immune checkpoint score in resected non-small cell lung cancer patients. Nat Immunol, Feb 16; 18 3. Emerging role of checkpoint blockade therapy in lymphoma. Ther Adv Hematol, Feb 17; 8 2.

Optimal delivery of follow-up care following pulmonary lobectomy for lung cancer. Lung Cancer Auckl , Feb 18; 7. Targeting neoantigens to augment antitumour immunity. Combination immunotherapy: a road map. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in challenging populations. Cancer, Feb 28; Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site BORIS variant subfamily 6 is a novel target of lung cancer stem-like cell immunotherapy. Integrated molecular analysis of tumor biopsies on sequential CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade reveals markers of response and resistance.

Tissue-specific tumorigenesis: context matters. Nat Rev Cancer, Mar 04; 17 4. Neurotherapeutics, Mar 05; 14 4. Debugging the Black Box. Cancer Discov, Mar 08; 7 3. J Immunol Res, Mar 08; Precision medicine driven by cancer systems biology.

Fabian V Filipp. Cancer Metastasis Rev, Mar 08; 36 1. NF1-mutated melanoma tumors harbor distinct clinical and biological characteristics. Current companion diagnostics in advanced colorectal cancer; getting a bigger and better piece of the pie. J Gastrointest Oncol, Mar 11; 8 1. Treatment of lung adenocarcinoma by molecular-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Successes and failures: what did we learn from recent first-line treatment immunotherapy trials in non-small cell lung cancer?

BMC Med, Mar 14; 15 1. A novel representation of inter-site tumour heterogeneity from pre-treatment computed tomography textures classifies ovarian cancers by clinical outcome. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: patient selection and perspectives. Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns. Lung Cancer Auckl , Mar 16; 8. Immune checkpoint inhibition and its relationship with hypermutation phenoytype as a potential treatment for Glioblastoma.

J Neurooncol, Mar 16; 3. A Neubauer. Internist Berl , Mar 18; 58 4. Evolution of MHC-based technologies used for detection of antigen-responsive T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother, Mar 21; 66 5. Stimulating CD27 to quantitatively and qualitatively shape adaptive immunity to cancer. Timothy Nj Bullock. Curr Opin Immunol, Mar 21; Current modalities in cancer immunotherapy: Immunomodulatory antibodies, CARs and vaccines.

Jason Lohmueller, Olivera J Finn. Pharmacol Ther, Mar 23; Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens. Biomark Res, Mar 24; 5. Systematic evaluation of immune regulation and modulation. Identification of genetic determinants of breast cancer immune phenotypes by integrative genome-scale analysis. Immunological profiling of molecularly classified high-risk endometrial cancers identifies POLE-mutant and microsatellite unstable carcinomas as candidates for checkpoint inhibition.

Integrated analysis of somatic mutations and immune microenvironment in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Drugs Aging, Mar 30; 34 5. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells: a novel therapy for solid tumors. Cancer Immunotherapy: Whence and Whither.

Mol Cancer Res, Mar 31; 15 6. Immunotherapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Takashi Kojima, Toshihiko Doi. Curr Oncol Rep, Apr 01; 19 5. Mutational burden, immune checkpoint expression, and mismatch repair in glioma: implications for immune checkpoint immunotherapy. Avelumab for patients with previously treated metastatic or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer JAVELIN Solid Tumor : dose-expansion cohort of a multicentre, open-label, phase 1b trial. Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway.

J Biomed Sci, Apr 06; 24 1. Response to the treatment immediately before nivolumab monotherapy may predict clinical response to nivolumab in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Biomarkers to predict prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitors.

High number of kinome-mutations in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with reduced immune response and poor relapse-free survival. Tumor Vaccines for Malignant Gliomas. Xia Li. BMC Cancer, Apr 10; 17 1. NY-ESO-1 expression predicts an aggressive phenotype of ovarian cancer.

The challenges of solid tumor for designer CAR-T therapies: a year perspective. Richard P Junghans. Cancer Gene Ther, Apr 11; 24 3. T-cell invigoration to tumour burden ratio associated with anti-PD-1 response. Resistance to immunotherapy: clouds in a bright sky. Invest New Drugs, Apr 13; 35 5. Tumor immunotherapy: drug-induced neoantigens xenogenization and immune checkpoint inhibitors. PD-L1 CD copy number gain, expression, and immune cell infiltration as candidate predictors for response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in soft-tissue sarcoma.

Oncoimmunology, Apr 14; 6 3. Cancer J, Apr 15; 23 2. Wnt Signaling and Colorectal Cancer. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep, Apr 18; 13 2. Next-generation sequencing of non-small cell lung cancer using a customized, targeted sequencing panel: Emphasis on small biopsy and cytology.

Analysis of , human cancer genomes reveals the landscape of tumor mutational burden. Multi-omics study revealing the complexity and spatial heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary liver carcinoma. HLA class I loss in metachronous metastases prevents continuous T cell recognition of mutated neoantigens in a human melanoma model. Long-term complete remission with Ipilimumab in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: case report of two patients.

Front Oncol, Apr 22; 7. Immunotherapeutic target expression on breast tumors can be amplified by hormone receptor antagonism: a novel strategy for enhancing efficacy of targeted immunotherapy. Oncotarget, Apr 22; 8 Spotlight on nivolumab in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: design, development, and place in therapy.

Drug Des Devel Ther, Apr 27; Targeting the PD-1 pathway in pediatric solid tumors and brain tumors. Onco Targets Ther, Apr 27; Annu Rev Immunol, Apr 28; Safety and antitumor activity of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the anal canal. Olivera J Finn.

Cancer Immunol Res, May 04; 5 5. Radiation improves antitumor effect of immune checkpoint inhibitor in murine hepatocellular carcinoma model. J Mol Biol, May 10; Checkpoint inhibitors in hematological malignancies. J Hematol Oncol, May 10; 10 1. In vivo imaging reveals a tumor-associated macrophage-mediated resistance pathway in anti-PD-1 therapy. The expanding repertoire of targets for immune checkpoint inhibition in bladder cancer: What lies beneath the tip of the iceberg, PD-L1.

Nivolumab for patients with recurrent glioblastoma progressing on bevacizumab: a retrospective case series. J Neurooncol, May 14; 3. Composite biomarkers defined by multiparametric immunofluorescence analysis identify ALK-positive adenocarcinoma as a potential target for immunotherapy. Curr Oncol Rep, May 17; 19 7. Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance in Leukemia and Lymphoma.

Trends Immunol, May 18; 38 7. Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and reprogramming. Identifying baseline immune-related biomarkers to predict clinical outcome of immunotherapy. The Promise and the Hype of 'Personalised Medicine'. Tim Maughan. New Bioeth, May 19; 23 1. Hallmarks of response to immune checkpoint blockade. Br J Cancer, May 20; 1. Prognostic value of KRAS mutation in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta-analysis and review.

Oncotarget, May 20; 8 Integrating immunotherapy into chemoradiation regimens for medically inoperable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Transl Lung Cancer Res, May 23; 6 2. Clinical experiences of combining immunotherapy and radiation therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: lessons from melanoma. Anusha Kalbasi, Ramesh Rengan. Combining immunotherapy and radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer and thymic tumors. Current state of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

Mini-review of conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy combined with immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. A quantitative and multiplexed approach to uncover the fitness landscape of tumor suppression in vivo. Shirish M Gadgeel. Curr Treat Options Oncol, May 24; 18 6. Unravelling the biology of SCLC: implications for therapy. Viroimmunotherapy of Thoracic Cancers. Biomedicines, May 26; 5 1. Immune signature of metastatic breast cancer: Identifying predictive markers of immunotherapy response.

Therapeutic T cell engineering. Nature, May 26; Interaction of molecular alterations with immune response in melanoma. New developments in the treatment of advanced squamous cell lung cancer: focus on afatinib. Vera Hirsh. Onco Targets Ther, May 27; Contribution of systemic and somatic factors to clinical response and resistance to PD-L1 blockade in urothelial cancer: An exploratory multi-omic analysis.

High PD-1 expression on regulatory and effector T-cells in lung cancer draining lymph nodes. Immunotherapy and radiation in glioblastoma. Petr Szturz, Jan B Vermorken. BMC Med, Jun 03; 15 1. Clin Cancer Res, Jun 03; 23 A molecular portrait of microsatellite instability across multiple cancers. Biology and evolution of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Nat Med, Jun 07; 23 6.

A prospective pilot study of genome-wide exome and transcriptome profiling in patients with small cell lung cancer progressing after first-line therapy. Precision medicine for hepatocelluar carcinoma using molecular pattern diagnostics: results from a preclinical pilot study. Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade. CloudNeo: a cloud pipeline for identifying patient-specific tumor neoantigens.

New insights into the role of EMT in tumor immune escape. Immunotherapy supplanting chemotherapy for upfront treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: what's next? Marius Ilie, Paul Hofman. J Thorac Dis, Jun 16; 9 5.

Harnessing the immune response to target tumors. Luisa Manning, John Nemunaitis. FRes, Jun 18; 6. Limitations and opportunities for immune checkpoint inhibitors in pediatric malignancies. Cancer Treat Rev, Jun 18; DNA repair and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Cancer Discov, Jun 21; 7 7. Int J Mol Sci, Jun 22; 18 6. Immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer: Unleash its potential through novel combinations. NetNorM: Capturing cancer-relevant information in somatic exome mutation data with gene networks for cancer stratification and prognosis. Immunotherapy biomarkers overcoming the barriers.

Monitoring immune-checkpoint blockade: response evaluation and biomarker development. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, Jun 28; 14 An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma. Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer.

J Hematol Oncol, Jul 07; 10 1. Amplification of N-Myc is associated with a T-cell-poor microenvironment in metastatic neuroblastoma restraining interferon pathway activity and chemokine expression. Cancers Basel , Jul 08; 9 7. Replicative DNA polymerase defects in human cancers: Consequences, mechanisms, and implications for therapy.

Atezolizumab in non-small cell lung cancer: the era of precision immuno-oncology. Ann Transl Med, Jul 15; 5 A perspective on the impact of radiation therapy on the immune rheostat. Genomic landscape of high-grade meningiomas. Predictive biomarkers of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: results from an Experts Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology.

Atezolizumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol, Jul 18; 10 9. The role of tumour heterogeneity and clonal cooperativity in metastasis, immune evasion and clinical outcome.

Deborah R Caswell, Charles Swanton. BMC Med, Jul 19; 15 1. A novel molecular diagnostics platform for somatic and germline precision oncology. Partially exhausted tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response to combination immunotherapy. Lung cancer as a paradigm for precision oncology in solid tumours. Virchows Arch, Jul 22; 2. Melanoma subtypes demonstrate distinct PD-L1 expression profiles.

Comparing sequencing assays and human-machine analyses in actionable genomics for glioblastoma. The immune contexture in cancer prognosis and treatment. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, Jul 26; 14 Oesophageal cancer. Genome-wide association analysis identifies genetic correlates of immune infiltrates in solid tumors. Tools to define the melanoma-associated immunopeptidome. Immunology, Jul 30; 4. PD-1 and PD-L1 as emerging therapeutic targets in gastric cancer: current evidence. Gastrointest Cancer, Aug 02; 7.

Liquid biopsies in lung cancer-time to implement research technologies in routine care? Ann Transl Med, Aug 02; 5 New PD-L1 inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer - impact of atezolizumab. Lung Cancer Auckl , Aug 02; 8. Ancient and modern: hints of a core post-transcriptional network driving chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer. Emerging role of nivolumab in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: current data and future perspectives.

Emily Feld, Leora Horn. Onco Targets Ther, Aug 05; Biomed Res Int, Aug 05; Moving molecular subtypes to the clinic in gastric cancer. Transl Cancer Res, Jun 01; 5 Suppl 1. Integrative clinical genomics of metastatic cancer. Identification of essential genes for cancer immunotherapy. Front Immunol, Aug 09; 8.

Curr Treat Options Oncol, Aug 09; 18 8. Feasibility of monitoring advanced melanoma patients using cell-free DNA from plasma. Treatment of advanced, metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: latest evidence and clinical considerations. Ther Adv Med Oncol, Aug 11; 9 8. Recent developments in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

Jonathan M Loree, Scott Kopetz. Curr Oncol Rep, Aug 12; 19 Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: Facts and Hopes. Leisha A Emens. Clin Cancer Res, Aug 13; 24 3. Semir Vranic. Clinical characteristics of patient selection and imaging predictors of outcome in solid tumors treated with checkpoint-inhibitors. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: a review of current evidence. Michael D Jain, John Kuruvilla. Drugs, Aug 19; 77 Lorenzo Falchi.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep, Aug 20; 12 5. Optimizing tumor immune response through combination of radiation and immunotherapy. Evolutionary biology of high-risk multiple myeloma. Charlotte Pawlyn, Gareth J Morgan. Nat Rev Cancer, Aug 25; 17 9. The neoepitope landscape in pediatric cancers. Angel Qin, Shirish Gadgeel.

Target Oncol, Sep 01; 12 6. Enabling a genetically informed approach to cancer medicine: evaluation of the impact of comprehensive tumor sequencing. Per Med, Sep 02; 14 3. Multicentre phase II study of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Glioblastoma targeted therapy: updated approaches from recent biological insights. Ann Oncol, Sep 03; 28 7. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy. Programmed cell death ligand 1 cut-point is associated with reduced disease specific survival in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Survival benefit of immune checkpoint inhibitors according to the histology in non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis and review. Oncotarget, Sep 09; 8 Clinical application of a cancer genomic profiling assay to guide precision medicine decisions.

Kentaro Inamura. Front Oncol, Sep 13; 7. The genetic landscape of programmed death ligand-1 PD-L1 alterations in head and neck cancer. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol, Sep 13; 2 3. Neoantigen prediction and the need for validation. Antonella Vitiello, Maurizio Zanetti. Nat Biotechnol, Sep 13; 35 9. Classifying the evolutionary and ecological features of neoplasms.

Emerging biomarkers for cancer immunotherapy in melanoma. Semin Cancer Biol, Sep 18; 52 Pt 2. First report of clinical responses to immunotherapy in 3 relapsing cases of chordoma after failure of standard therapies.

The frequency of neoantigens per somatic mutation rather than overall mutational load or number of predicted neoantigens per se is a prognostic factor in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Dosing immunotherapy combinations: Analysis of 3, patients for toxicity and response patterns. Oncoimmunology, Sep 19; 6 8. Checkpoint inhibitor is active against large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with high tumor mutation burden. Relationship of tumor PD-L1 CD expression with lower mortality in lung high-grade neuroendocrine tumor.

Response to first line chemotherapy regimen is associated with efficacy of nivolumab in non-small-cell lung cancer. Complete pathologic response of metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and allograft rejection after treatment with combination immune checkpoint blockade. High somatic mutation and neoantigen burden are correlated with decreased progression-free survival in multiple myeloma.

Distribution of circulating tumor DNA in lung cancer: analysis of the primary lung and bone marrow along with the pulmonary venous and peripheral blood. Front Immunol, Sep 30; 8. Comprehensive genomic profiles of metastatic and relapsed salivary gland carcinomas are associated with tumor type and reveal new routes to targeted therapies.

Radiomics: the bridge between medical imaging and personalized medicine. Genetic defects of the IRF1-mediated major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation pathway occur prevalently in the JAK2 gene in non-small cell lung cancer. Oncotarget, Oct 06; 8 Improving radiotherapy in cancer treatment: Promises and challenges. Towards a better cancer precision medicine: systems biology meets immunotherapy.

Bhavneet Bhinder, Olivier Elemento. Curr Opin Syst Biol, Oct 11; 2. The diverse functions of the PD1 inhibitory pathway. Nat Rev Immunol, Oct 11; 18 3. Cholangiocarcinoma - evolving concepts and therapeutic strategies. Preclinical investigation of combined gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy and immune checkpoint blockade in glioblastoma.

Novel Considerations in the Approach to Glioblastoma. J Oncol Pract, Oct 12; 13 Challenging the standard of care in advanced melanoma: focus on pembrolizumab. Cancer Manag Res, Oct 14; 9. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte interplay in controlling tumor growth. Tumor and Microenvironment Evolution during Immunotherapy with Nivolumab.

Genomic insights into head and neck cancer. Cancers Head Neck, Jan 01; 1. Clinical and molecular characterization of patients with cancer of unknown primary in the modern era. Genomic landscape associated with potential response to anti-CTLA-4 treatment in cancers. Comprehensive Analysis of Hypermutation in Human Cancer. Relevance of genetic alterations in squamous and small cell lung cancer.

Ann Transl Med, Oct 24; 5 Beyond PD-L1 testing-emerging biomarkers for immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer. Emerging uses of biomarkers in lung cancer management: molecular mechanisms of resistance. Emerging uses of circulating tumor DNA in advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer. Immunotherapy with subcutaneous immunogenic autologous tumor lysate increases murine glioblastoma survival.

Small-cell lung cancer: what we know, what we need to know and the path forward. Nat Rev Cancer, Oct 28; 17 Genome variation across cancers scales with tissue stiffness - an invasion-mutation mechanism and implications for immune cell infiltration. Curr Opin Syst Biol, Oct 31; 2. Cancer gene profiling in non-small cell lung cancers reveals activating mutations in JAK2 and JAK3 with therapeutic implications. Multi-dimensional genomic analysis of myoepithelial carcinoma identifies prevalent oncogenic gene fusions.

Actionable gene-based classification toward precision medicine in gastric cancer. The anti-PD-1 era - an opportunity to enhance radiotherapy for patients with bladder cancer. Nat Rev Urol, Nov 02; 15 4. Gut microbiome modulates response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients. Review of cancer treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors : Current concepts, expectations, limitations and pitfalls.

Correlating programmed death ligand 1 PD-L1 expression, mismatch repair deficiency, and outcomes across tumor types: implications for immunotherapy. Cardiotoxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Advances in lung cancer. Oncotarget, Nov 08; 8 Scalable whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA reveals high concordance with metastatic tumors. Molecular diagnostics of lung cancer in the clinic.

Lynette Sholl. Transl Lung Cancer Res, Nov 09; 6 5. New trends in antitumor vaccines in melanoma. Ann Transl Med, Nov 09; 5 Synergistic anticancer activity of a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent containing trifluridine and tipiracil in combination with anti-PD-1 blockade in microsatellite stable-type murine colorectal cancer cells. Mol Diagn Ther, Nov 10; 22 1. Combining DNA damaging therapeutics with immunotherapy: more haste, less speed. Br J Cancer, Nov 11; 3.

A neoantigen fitness model predicts tumour response to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. In the Revolt of Tyre — , the populace rose against Fatimid rule, led by an ordinary sailor named 'Allaqa. However, the caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah sent his army and navy to blockade and retake the city.

A Byzantine squadron's attempt to reinforce the defenders was repulsed with heavy losses. After two years of siege, the Fatimids looted the city and massacred the insurgents. In it fell into the hands of the Seljuks who lost it in to the Fatimids. By that time, some estimates put the number of inhabitants at around 20, Ten years later, Tyre avoided being attacked by paying tribute to the Crusaders who marched on Jerusalem. In late , King Baldwin I of Jerusalem laid siege on the city, [72] which in response put itself under the protection of the Seljuk military leader Toghtekin.

Supported by Fatimid forces, he intervened and forced the Franks to raise the siege in April , after about 2. On 7 July , in the aftermath of the First Crusade , Tyre was the last city to be eventually taken by the Christian warriors — a Frankish army on the coast and a fleet of the Venetian Crusade from the sea side [72] — following a siege of five and a half months [16] that caused great suffering from hunger to the population.

Under its new rulers, Tyre and its countryside were divided into three parts in accordance with the Pactum Warmundi : two-thirds to the royal domain of Baldwin and one third as autonomous trading colonies for the Italian merchant cities: mainly to the Doge of Venice , who had a particular interest in supplying silica sands to the glassmakers of Venice [3] and in the sugar-cane plantations on the mainland.

In , Tyre was reportedly shaken by a heavy earthquake that caused many casualties. Although the loss of lives were reportedly small, some towers were damaged in the latter. Nevertheless, Tyre became one of the most important cities of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as it opened the Silk Road to the Western kingdoms. The city was the see of a Roman Catholic archbishopric , whose archbishop was a suffragan of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem ; its archbishops often acceded to the Patriarchate.

The most notable of the Latin archbishops was the historian William of Tyre, who held the office from to and was also chancellor of the kingdom. While the Venetians quickly constructed the church of San Marco in their quarter and the Pisans built a church of San Pietro , the Saint Mark Cathedral was erected upon the ruins of the Fatimid Grand Mosque [60] — which in turn had probably been constructed upon or near the ruins of several iterations of Christian churches and on the lowest level the ancient Temple of Melqart.

After the loss of Jerusalem to Saladin in , many crusaders escaped to Tyre with its strong fortifications: " The refugee barons of Palestine were now crowded in the city. Thanks to Frankish military and naval reinforcements, Conrad of Montferrat was able to organise an effective defense. Subsequently, Tyre's Cathedral became the traditional coronation place for the kings of Jerusalem and a venue for royal marriages.

Tyre remained for four years the only city of the Latin Kingdom under Frankish rule [74] - until the reconquest of Acre by Richard I of England on 12 July , when the seat of the kingdom moved there. On 27 April , Conrad of Montferrat — who had been elected as king of Jerusalem just days before — was assassinated at Tyre by members of the Order of Assassins. Ten years later, the Syria earthquake caused very severe damages in Tyre.

They were defeated in by the baronial party and its Venetian allies. In — one year after the beginning of the War of Saint Sabas between Genoa and Venice over control of Acre — Philip expelled the Venetians from the one third of the city that had been conceded to them more than a century earlier, though its quasi- exterritorial status was eroded already from early on. In May , the Mamluk Sultan Baibars led an abortive raid upon Tyre after failed negotiations about a truce.

He entered a treaty with Baibars, transferring control over five villages to him. In , he also restored Venetian privileges. Two years later she entered into a land control treaty with Baibars' successor Al-Mansur Qalawun. Sultan Khalil had all fortifications demolished to prevent the Franks from re-entrenching. The traditional pottery and glassware industry in Tyre continued its production of artful objects during the early Mamluk period.

While the sultanate was rocked by factional struggles after Khalil's death in and political instability, Tyre — "the London" [83] or "New York City" [28] of the Old World — lost its importance and " sank into obsurity.

In , the English traveller George Sandys noted about his visit to Tyre:. The Ottoman Empire conquered the Levant in , [16] yet Tyre remained practically untouched for another ninety years until the beginning of the 17th century, when the Ottoman leadership at the Sublime Porte appointed the Druze leader Fakhreddine II of the Maan family as Emir to administer Jabal Amel modern-day South Lebanon and Galilee in addition to the districts of Beirut and Sidon.

One of his projects in Tyre was the construction of a residence for his brother, Prince Younis Al-Maani. Its foundations were evidently built upon ruins from the Crusader period. Fakhreddine also encouraged Shiites and Christians to settle to the East of Tyre to secure the road to Damascus. He thus laid the foundation of modern Tyre demographics as many of those settlers — or their descendants respectively — later moved to the town.

At the core of this alliance with Florence was the plan to rebuild the harbour for naval support. In , Fakhreddine also spelled Fakhr-al-Din returned to the Levant thanks to the removal of some of his enemies within the Ottoman regime. In the following decades, Ali al-Saghir — a leader of the discriminated Metwali , the Shia Muslims of what is now Lebanon — established a dynasty [93].

In the English scholar Henry Maundrell visited Tyre and found only a " few " inhabitants, who mainly subsisted upon fishing. The hinterland of Tyre " was generally seen as a lawless country where criminals would flee to seek refuge with the Shiites. Under these conditions, Tyre also became — at least nominally — the center of the schism within the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch : [94] its archbishop of Tyre and Sidon — Euthymios Saif — had been working on regaining communion with the Holy See in Rome at least since In , the Congregation Propaganda Fide appointed him by secret decree to be the Apostolic Administrator of the Melkites.

He quickly affirmed the union with Rome and thereby the separation from the Greek Orthodox Church. Church services were held in the ruins of Saint Thomas church near the remains of the Crusaders Cathedral. Around , Jabal Amel's ruler from the Shiite dynasty of Ali al-Saghir see above , [86] Sheikh Nasif al-Nassar , initiated a number of construction projects to attract new inhabitants to the almost deserted town.

The main trade partners became French merchants, though both Hasan and Al-Nassar at times clashed with French authorities about the conditions of the commerce. Amongst Al-Nassar's projects was a marketplace. While the former Maani palace was turned into a military garrison , [87] Al-Nassar commissioned the Serail at the Northern port as his own headquarters, which nowadays houses the police HQ.

In , construction of the Melkite cathedral of Saint Thomas was started thanks to donations from a rich merchant, George Mashakka — also spelled Jirjis Mishaqa [98] - in a place that had already housed a church during the Crusader period in the 12th century. Numerous Greek Catholic families followed him there.

Mashakka also contributed considerably to the construction of a great mosque, [72] which is nowadays known as the Old Mosque. However, around the same time the resurgence of Tyre suffered some backlashes: the devastating Near East earthquakes of destroyed parts of the town and killed an unknown number of people as well. Thus, the Shiite autonomy in Jabal Amel ended for a quarter-century.

At the beginning of the 19th century though, another boom period set in: in a Caravanserai was constructed near the former palace of Emir Younes Maani and the marketplace area: Khan Rabu. A few years later, the former Maani Palace and military garrison was transformed into a Caravanserai Khan as well. An early settler — Jason Smith — was " presumably " inspired by ancient Tyre when he chose the name, according to the Town Historian in the northern Seneca County of the state of New York.

The town — like its Mediterranean namesake — featured an aqueduct, a part of which still exists. The people were sleeping in boats drawn up on shore, and in tents beside them, while half-suspended shutters and doors unhinged were creaking and langing in dreadful concert. Two years later, Shiite forces under Hamad al-Mahmud from the Ali al-Saghir dynasty see above rebelled against the occupation.

For their fight against the Egyptian invaders, Al-Mahmud and his successor Ali al-As'ad — a relative — were rewarded by the Ottoman rulers with the restoration of Shiite autonomy in Jabal Amel. Meanwhile, the Egyptian occupation had opened the door for European intervention in Ottoman affairs through various Lebanese communities. Thus France under Napoleon III and its allied Maronite leaders increased their influence across Lebanon from the midth century onwards.

When the Emperor of the French thus sent an expeditionary corps of some 7, troops to Beirut during the Mount Lebanon civil war between Druze and Maronite groups, he also commissioned first archaeological excavations in Tyre that were undertaken by Ernest Renan. After his departure irregular digging activities disturbed the historical sites.

Around the same time, the Latin-Catholic church of the Holy Land was established by the Franciscan order. In , the Bavaria n historian and politician Johann Nepomuk Sepp led a mission to Tyre to search for the bones of Frederick Barbarossa. The expedition had the approval of Otto von Bismarck , Chancellor of the German Empire , and openly pursued ambitions to establish a German colony.

While Sepp and his team failed to discover Barbarossa's remains, they did excavate the ruins of the Crusader cathedral and took a number of archaeological findings to Berlin where they were exhibited. According to Sepp, Tyre had some 5, inhabitants in Meanwhile, the Ottoman Land reforms led to the accumulated ownership of large tracts of land by a few families at the expense of the peasants.

While the Al-As'ad descendants of the rural Ali al-Saghir dynasty expanded their fief holdings as the provincial leaders in Jabal Amel, another power player rose from the urban class of the mercantilist notables " Wujaha' " to the rank of Zu'ama feudal landlords in Tyre: []. The grain merchant al-Khalil family would go on to play a dominant role in the city for more than a century.

As a result of this mass-impoverishment, many inhabitants of Tyre and Jabal Amil emigrated in the s to West Africa. In , construction of the Maronite cathedral of "Our Lady of the Seas" near the modern harbour was finished. It was built on the foundations of an older church. The Young Turk Revolution and its call for elections to an Ottoman parliament triggered a power-struggle in Jabal Amel: on the one hand side Rida al-Sulh of a Sunni dynasty from Sidon, which had sidelined the Shia Al-As'ad clan of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty see above in the coastal region with support from leading Shiite families like the al-Khalil clan in Tyre.

By that time, Tyre had a population of about 2, Shi'ites, 2, Christians and Sunnis. In the district of Tyre there were altogether some 40, Shi'ites and 8, Christians. At the beginning of the First World War in , many Shiites in Jabal Amel were conscripted and thus had to leave their farms.

One year later famine struck as locusts devastated the fields. This triggered another wave of emigration to Africa and also to the US. As opposition to the Turkish rulers grew across the Levant, Arab nationalism was on the rise in Jabal Amel as well. However, in March the Ottoman authorities launched a new wave of repressions and arrested a number of activists of the Decentralisation Party in Tyre as in other cities like Sidon, Nabatiya, and Beirut.

Some of them were executed. Also in , Abdel Karim al-Khalil — the leader of the al-Khalil clan, who were the Tyrian allies of the al-Sulh dynasty from Sidon — was executed by the Ottoman regime " at the instigation " of Kamil al-As'ad from the rival Ali al-Saghir dynasty, [86] some believed. Still in , fighting reached Tyre: in November of that year, four locals spying for the French intelligence were reportedly captured in Tyre and two of them executed in Beirut. In February , British intelligence agents undertook another operation to the area of Tyre to gather information about the Ottoman presence there.

In September , following the British victory at the Battle of Megiddo over the Ottoman Yildirim Army Group , the latter's remnants were forced to withdraw towards Damascus. The commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force General Edmund Allenby ordered his infantry and corps cavalry to capture the ports of Beirut and Tripoli to supply his forces in their Pursuit to Haritan of the retreating Ottoman troops. Tyre was a strategic supply post on this route.

Within three days, the second column of the British Indian Army 's 7th Meerut Division paved the way across the Ladder of Tyre by expanding the narrow track over the steep cliff. After the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman rule started in and the Sharifian Army conquered the Levant in with support from the British Empire , the Jamal Amil feudal leader Kamil al-As'ad of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty , who had been an Ottomanist before, declared the area — including Tyre — part of the Arab Kingdom of Syria on 5 October Subsequently, the French Army used the historical garrison building of Khan Sour as a base, [60] which had apparently been taken over as property by the Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Tyre [87] from the Franciscan Fathers.

He had played a decisive role in the power struggle between the al-As'ad clan of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty on the one hand side and the al-Sulh dynasty with their Tyrian allies of the al-Khalil family see above in favour of the former. His alliance with al-As'ad strengthened after WWI, as. Thus he became the leading supporter of a Greater Syria, [71] while al-As'ad " waivered, waiting to see how events would turn out. In early , Sharafeddin led a Shia delegation to Damascus to make the case for unity with Syria.

When in April violent clashes took place in the Jabal Amel area between armed Shia and Maronite groups, [86] many Christians living in the hinterland of Jabal Amel had fled to Tyre. On the first of September , the French colonial rulers proclaimed the new State of Greater Lebanon under the guardianship of the League of Nations represented by France.

Tyre and the Jabal Amel were attached as the Southern part of the Mandate. Still in , the first municipality of Tyre was founded, which was headed by Ismail Yehia Khalil [] from the Shia feudal dynasty of al-Khalil. The al-Khalil family had traditionally been allies of the al-Sulh clan, whereas Imam Sharafeddin supported the rival al-Asa'ad clan of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty since see above.

As the most prominent opponent of the French imperialist project Sharafeddin was forced to flee the city:. He fled to Damascus, but had to quit that city for Egypt and then for a brief stay several months in Palestine before he was allowed to return to his base in Tyre. Meanwhile, the common people in Tyre and all of Southern Lebanon suffered from high taxes [] and fines imposed on their economy to punish them for the failed rebellion.

This trend was only curbed when the French colonial rulers in Africa imposed stricter controls on immigration at the end of the s. In , Kamil al-As'ad returned from exile and started an uprising against the French occupation, but was quickly suppressed and died in Sharafeddin thus resurged as the most defining character for the peaceful development of Tyre in the first half of the 20th century.

While he succeeded his rival Khalil as head of the municipal council until , [] he first and foremost changed the city and its hinterland by becoming a social reformer [] and " activist ". In , the colonial regime officially recognised the Shia Ja'fari jurisprudence and subsequently — like in other cities — a Ja'fari tribunal opened in Tyre.

It was headed by Sheikh Mughniya throughout the Mandate period. It was named Abdel Hussein Mosque after Sharafeddine. Yet despite Sharafeddine's efforts, the colonial appointments policy led to the fact that " almost all " of the particularly sensitive positions in the Tyre municipality and government were held by the Christian Salim family, which was headed by Yusuf Salim , a former deputy and the vice-director of " La Compagnie des Eaux de Beyrouth ".

In , the colonial authorities set up a camp for Armenian refugees in Rashidieh on the coast, five kilometres south of Tyre city. A branch of the Armenian General Benevolent Union was founded there in He pledged his private house to build the school, against the opposition of the feudal al-Khalil family.

It soon expanded, also thanks to donations from the As'ad clan. The teaching staff consisted, however, not just of Shi'ites, but also of Christians, including headmaster Michael Shaban. The school soon also " became a nucleus for political activity ", with Sharafeddin supporting especially the Palestinian demand for independence. The borders were open during those times, and many Palestinian Jews used to spend holidays in Tyre, while vice versa many Southern Lebanese would travel freely to Haifa and Tel Aviv.

After the start of the Second World War , French troops once again used the historical garrison building of Khan Sour as a base. It relied heavily on Indian troops [] and also included the Australian 21st Brigade. It is not known how Tyre experienced the end of colonial rule and the transfer of power in the two years leading up to Lebanese independence on 22 November When France dispatched troops to Beirut during the Levant Crisis , it was Imam Sharafeddin who sent a petition to the Legation of the United States in the capital:.

This is a slighting of our liberty and a disdain of our honor. We are prepared to defend our independence. We would not hesitate to shed the last drop of our blood to that effect. The expansion was possible especially thanks to funding from merchants who had emigrated from Tyre to Western Africa and made their fortunes there.

In contrast, a school project by Sharafeddin's political rival Kazem al-Khalil failed despite support from prime minister Riad al-Sulh , to whose family the al-Khalil feudal dynasty was traditionally allied. It could have Tyre and Sidon and the , Muslims living there, but when he put the matter to Weizmann, even he balked at what he called ' a gift which bites '.

When the state of Israel was declared in May , Tyre was immediately affected: with the Palestinian exodus — also known as the Nakba — thousands of Palestinian refugees fled to the city, often by boat. Many of them were given shelter by Imam Sharafeddin in the Jafariya School. Many of them found refuge in Tyre.

Subsequently, its position next to the closed border further marginalised the city, " which was already sidelined by Beirut and Sidon. Palestinian refugees played a key role in developing the citrus plantations in Tyre area, but were also competing for cheap labour opportunities in this field with the Lebanese precariat. In , the new building of the Jafariya School was inaugurated and named Binayat al-Muhajir — "Building of the Emigrants" — honouring the contributions from wealthy Tyrians in Africa.

In , the Jafariya School was the platform for a guerrilla group of 25 Lebanese and Palestinian students to launch military strikes in Israel. However, at the end of that year their weapons were confiscated by the military intelligence and the Palestinian headmaster Ibrahim al-Ramlawi was arrested. It is unclear whether the Chim earthquake , which killed some people in the Chouf District , caused any injuries or damages in Tyre as well. On 31 December , Imam Sharafeddine, the founder of modern Tyre, died at the age of 85 and at a point of time when tensions escalated once again: [86].

When President Camille Chamoun introduced a new electoral system in , Ahmed al-Asaad from the feudal Ali al-Saghir dynasty, who at the beginning of the decade had even been the Speaker of the Lebanese parliament , for the first time lost the vote for deputy MP.

He had presented his candidacy in Tyre, the stronghold of his Shia rival Kazem al-Khalil , rather than in his traditional home base of Bint-Jbeil. As a consequence, al-Asaad became a " major instigator of events against Chamoun " and his allies, primarily al-Khalil, [86] who likewise was a long-time member of parliament and the scion of a family of large landowners " zu'ama " ruling through patronage systems : [] [] [].

During the crisis, Kazem al-Khalil was the only Shi'ite minister in the cabinet of Sami as-Sulh , to whose family the al-Khalil feudal dynasty was traditionally allied. Demonstrations took place — as in Beirut and other cities — that promoted pro-union slogans and protested against US foreign policy. Still in February, five of its students were arrested and " sent to jail for trampling on the Lebanese flag and replacing it with that of the UAR.

On 28 March, soldiers and followers of Kazem al-Khalil opened fire on demonstrators and — according to some reports — killed three. In May, the insurgents in Tyre gained the upper hand. The ICRC got permission from them for regular relief distributions. The crisis dissolved in September when Chamoun stepped down. Al-Khalil returned still in but was attacked several times by gunmen. After Imam Sharafeddin's death in , his sons and other representatives of the Shia community of Southern Lebanon asked his relative Sayyid Musa Sadr to be his successor as Imam.

In , Sadr moved to Tyre and at first encountered not only suspicion, but also opposition. In parliament, to which he was re-elected in , [86] he made the following plea, which arguably summarises the precarious socio-economic situation in the midth century most precisely:. But the rulers of Tyre have deprived Tyre and the surroundings of their rights.

Of these sixty villages, only a dozen or so have anything that could be called a school or a paved road. Forty villages are without a school. These sixty villages go thirsty in this age of science and the machine, while a river [the Litani] passes them by on the way to the sea. All sixty villages lack electricity. Electricity is the fortune of more privileged districts. These sixty villages are deserted, inhabited by old men and women; the young ones have departed to toil in the heat of Africa.

Thousands more have come to Beirut, to toil among others of their kind. Tyre itself, the heart of the district, has suffered what no city can suffer. It has become a deformed, ruined place. Everything in it falls short of what a civilised place should be. The government should restore to Tyre its splendor. By the s, Tyre had a population of some 15, inhabitants. Towards the end of the decade, public discontent in Tyre grew as it did in other parts of the country. A protest movement started in March with a long strike by secondary students who amongst other things demanded lower fees: " In Tyre, the gendarmes fired on a demonstration, killing a student, Edward Ghanima.

In the following year, there were almost 25, registered Palestinian refugees in the camps of Tyre: 3, in Al Bass, 7, in Burj El Shimali, and 13, in Rashidieh. In the elections for the national parliament, about 40, Tyrians were entitled to elect three Shiite representatives as deputies: the greatest number of votes went to the two candidates allied to veteran prime minister Rachid Karami: both lawyer Muhammad Safi Al-Din and businessman Ali Arab , who had made his fortune in South America, were former ministers and long-time deputies.

Kazem al-Khalil, Tyre's main feudal lord and long-time MP, who already lost the elections in and , [] came in at a close fourth place. Hence, the former minister complained about " armed demonstrations, bribery, and arrests ". The solidarity of the Lebanese Tyrians with the Palestinians was especially demonstrated in January through a general strike to demand the repulsion of Israeli attacks on Palestinian targets in Beirut.

Thus, clashes between Palestinians and Israel increased dramatically:. In the national elections, former Baathist Ali al-Khalil won one of the deputy seats for Tyre District. In early , growing public discontent manifested itself again in " wildcat strikes and violent demonstrations " in Tyre as in other cities. The October Yom Kippur War signalled even more Palestinian military operations from Southern Lebanese territory, including Tyre, which in turn increasingly sparked Israeli retaliation.

In this environment, Imam Sadr was balancing the relations between the Maronite-dominated state, the Palestinian resistance with its leftist Lebanese supporters, and his own Shia community, which increasingly harboured popular discontent with the PLO domination in Southern Lebanon and being caught in the crossfire with Israel. There, Sadr's power struggle with the traditional feudal rulers escalated: thanks to the backing of the SISC Sadr managed to gradually break up the inherited power of Kamil al-As'ad — a close ally of President Suleiman Frangieh [86] — from the Ali al-Saghir dynasty after almost three centuries, [] although al-As'ad's list still dominated the South in the parliamentary elections of and the by-elections of Likewise, the large landlord Kazem al-Khalil in Tyre, who had been a fierce opponent of both As'ad and Sadr, [] [] re-gained his parliamentary seat in , [86] but was soon marginalised by two other organisations that Sadr set up:.

While it reached out beyond the Shia communities of Southern Lebanon to those fragmented ones in the Bekaa Valley and Beirut for creating a united Shia identity in the Lebanese context, [86] Sadr also sought close cooperation with the Christian minorities, [] especially the Greek-Catholic Melkites under the leadership of Tyre's archbishop Georges Haddad.

It is estimated that some 80 thousand of Sadr's followers rallied in Tyre on 5 May , [] with weapons on open display. According to the Lebanese army, 5 people were killed and 21 injured in Rashidieh, while 8 were killed and 30 injured in Burj El Shemali.

In this context, despite his pledges to nonviolent means, Sadr also founded the de facto military wing of his movement in , just before the outbreak of the civil war: the Afwaj al-Muqawama al-Lubnaniyya Amal.

The Iranian director of Sadr's technical school in Tyre, Mostafa Chamran , became a major instructor of guerilla warfare. The US-trained physicist went on to become the first defense minister of post-revolutionary Iran. On the national stage of politics, one of Sadr's main allies was the Lebanese Druze leader Kamal Jumblatt.

However, frictions between them led to a break-up of their coalition soon after the beginning of the civil war in [86] under Jumblatt's leadership the National Lebanese Movement NLM allied itself to the PLO. More assaults followed on 16 and 29 August, as well as on 3 September. The new rulers thus declared the founding of the "People's Republic of Tyre". When Syria invaded Lebanon in mid, it committed to a proposal by the Arab League not to cross the Litani River southwards. So while the Lebanese Civil War had started in South Lebanon, it was spared from much of the internal fighting.

However, many young men from the area moved northwards to take part in combat. In , three Lebanese fishermen in Tyre lost their lives by an Israeli attack. Palestinian militants retaliated with rocket fire on the Israeli town of Nahariya , leaving three civilians dead. Israel in turn retaliated by killing " over a hundred " mainly Lebanese Shiite civilians in the Southern Lebanese countryside. Some sources reported that these lethal events took place in July, [] whereas others dated them to November.

According to the latter, the IDF also conducted heavy airstrikes as well as artillery and gunboat shelling on Tyre and surrounding villages, especially on the Palestinian refugee camps in Rashidieh, Burj El Shimali and El Bass. Thus, it was again especially the common people of Tyre and its hinterlands, who greatly suffered from the political conflicts. On 11 March , Dalal Mughrabi — a young woman from the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra in Beirut — and a dozen fedayeen fighters sailed from Tyre to a beach north of Tel Aviv.

They then committed the Coastal Road massacre that killed 38 Israeli civilians, including 13 children, and wounded Of the 11 perpetrators, 9 were killed. Three days later the IDF invaded Lebanon " and in a few days occupied the entire southern part of the country except for the city of Tyre and its surrounding area. Nevertheless, Tyre was badly affected in the week-long Operation that was code-named "Stone of Wisdom" but became better known as Operation Litani.

It destroyed a number of historical buildings like Beit Shaddad in the Christian quarter and heavily damaged many others. Moreover, the old Hassan Borro Army barracks of Tyre came under fire and were reportedly abandoned by the dissident Lebanese Arab Army, but held by its Palestinian allies. Its convoy of 14 trucks crossed the Litani and drove into Tyre on 23 March On April 30, French soldiers killed at least one Palestinian gunman and wounded two others.

Again one day later, a hitherto unknown group called the Popular Front for the Liberation of South Lebanon , which was allegedly tied to the rejectionist PLO wing, opened fire on the French base and ambushed a convoy nearby. One Senegalese and two French soldiers were killed as well as one Palestinian liaison officer , while nine UNIFIL soldiers were badly injured, [] amongst them commander Salvan, who was severely wounded in both legs.

As those Palestinian forces were unwilling to give up their positions in and around Tyre, UNIFIL suffered more casualties [] and was effectively forced to abandon its base in the Tyre barracks. Its leadership moved the headquarters instead southwards into the strip of Lebanon held by Israel. Only a few months after the conflict, on 31 August , Amal-Leader Musa Sadr mysteriously disappeared following a visit to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.

Frequent IDF bombardments of Tyre from ground, sea and air raids continued after Meanwhile, the PLO reportedly converted itself into a regular army by purchasing large weapon systems, including Soviet WWII-era T tanks, which it deployed in the "Tyre Pocket" with an estimated 1, fighters.

He was shot dead a few weeks later following a gun battle between Palestinians and UN soldiers in south Lebanon. As discontent within the Shiite population about the suffering from the conflict between Israel and the Palestinian factions grew, so did tensions between Amal and the Palestinian militants. It heavily afflicted Tyre once again, as the invaders attacked from all sides:. While helicopters and boats landed advance troops on the coast to the North of the city, naval vessels shelled the city from the sea and warplanes bombed it from the air.

The tanks advancing from the South were backed up by infantry [] and artillery. Altogether, air raids alone killed some 80 people on the first day. Though the PLO had reportedly left its positions on the peninsula, [] urban Tyre with the market area in particular was heavily bombarded as well.

Aerial attacks on Burj El Shemali reportedly killed some civilians in one shelter alone, when it was hit by phosphorus bombs. The fighting stopped after two days, but the humanitarian consequences were severe, [] also because " the IDF had few plans for management or detention of masses of civilians, let alone for feeding. UNRWA recorded that in Rashidieh alone " more than shelters were totally or partially destroyed and more than 5, Palestine refugees were displaced.

Still in June , the Israeli forces temporarily arrested some 14, men in Tyre and paraded them in front of hooded collaborators who advised the occupators whom to detain. Dawud and other Amal leaders did not avoid discreet contacts with Israelis, but refused open clientship. The IDF soon lost patience and arrested thirteen Amal leaders as early as the summer of Moreover, the IDF set up a military post in Tyre and sponsored the return of Shia feudal lord Kazem al-Khalil to the city in July after an absence of seven years.

When his attempts to reconcile with Amal failed, he formed a small militia of some 40 men with Israeli support, [] recruiting mainly young Shiites from a poor background. This simple miscalculation was an act from which he was never able to fully recover politically ". On 11 November , the fifteen-year-old Ahmed Qasir , who had reportedly lost several members of his family in the Israeli invasion of , [] carried out a suicide-attack with an explosive-laden car. His target was the Israeli military headquarters in Tyre, a high-rise building that also housed the paramilitary Border Guards.

In addition, it was reportedly a hub for the military intelligence A'man and the internal security service Shin Bet. All seven [] or eight stores floors collapsed. In any event, it was. In June , Shin Bet agents conducted a series of mass arrests in the Palestinian refugee camps of Tyre, as the suicide-attack was still not claimed by any group. On the tenth of that month, a group of unidentified gunmen ambushed two armoured IDF vehicles and killed three soldiers.

At the same time, the occupators sponsored the founding of a new Lebanese militia in the Tyre area run by a certain Hartawi. Regardless, almost one year after the first suicide-attack, in October , yet another one devastated the new Israeli headquarters in Tyre. It killed 29 Israeli soldiers and officers, wounding another thirty [] as confirmed by the Israeli government.

In February , Amal followed the example of its split-off, when one of its members from Tyre launched a suicide attack on an IDF convoy in Burj El Shimali, [] injuring ten soldiers. Under the growing pressure the Israeli forces withdrew from Tyre by the end of April [71] and instead established a self-declared "Security Zone" in Southern Lebanon with its collaborating militia allies of the South Lebanon Army SLA. However, Tyre was left outside the SLA control.

At once, Amal arrested the pro-Israeli militia leader in Tyre, Ibrahim Farran , and another main-collaborator, Shawqi Abdallah , [71] but unlike in other areas there were no forced displacements of Christians in Tyre and Tyre area. The approximately 60, Palestinian refugees in the camps around Tyre al-Bass, Rashidiya, Burj al-Shimali were cut off from the outside world, although Amal never succeeded in fully controlling the camps themselves. After one month of siege, Amal attacked the refugee camp in the South of Tyre.

By that time some 7, refugees in the Tyre area were displaced once more: []. Higgins , who served in a senior position of UNTSO, was kidnapped just South of Tyre on the coastal highway to Naqoura by armed men suspected of being affiliated with Hezbollah. The incident took place following a meeting between Higgins and a local Amal leader and led to renewed clashes between Amal and Hezbollah, mainly in Beirut. Amongst the casualties was Amal's leader for South Lebanon leader, Dawood Dawood, causing " an outpour of popular grief in Tyre ".

The final phase of the Lebanese Civil War in that year coincided with the death of feudal lord and veteran Tyre politician Kazem al-Khalil, who succumbed to a heart attack in his Paris exile. Following the end of the war in March based on the Taif Agreement , units of the Lebanese Army deployed along the coastal highway and around the Palestinian refugee camps of Tyre. The long occupation left Southern Lebanon in general and Tyre in particular " depressed long after cease-fire " of the civil war, especially in economic terms.

Such attempts were stopped when Sayed Hassan Nasrallah rose to the top of the organisation in In the elections, Kamil al-As'ad from the feudal dynasty of Ali al-Saghir headed a list that lost against Amal. Nasir al-Khalil , the son of Tyre's former longtime deputy Kazim al-Khalil who died in , was not elected either [] and failed again in In April , Israel launched the sixteen-day campaign Operation Grapes of Wrath against Lebanon in an attempt to stop rocket attacks by Hezbollah.

As part of the conflict, the Israeli Navy blockaded the harbour of Tyre. Tyrian hospitals were overcrowded with civilian victims of bombardments throughout the conflict. After Israeli shelling hit the UNIFIL compound in the nearby village of Qana on 18 April, killing civilians and injuring another as well as 4 UN workers from Fiji , the central mourning ceremony was held in the Roman Hippodrome of Tyre following the ceasefire at the end of April. The number of attendants honouring the victims of the Qana massacre was estimated at more than A few weeks later, the Maronite Archeparchy of Tyre gave up a portion of its traditional territory, as the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Haifa and the Holy Land was created.

Until , the archbishop had visited his flock across the Blue Line like in past centuries, when Tyre was part of a Greater Palestine with open borders. This cross-border mandate now became untenable. In the Municipal Elections, Amal won " a startling victory of twenty one seats in Tyre " ahead of Hezbollah.

Six years later, Amal held Tyre as its traditional stronghold, but lost support in the District of Tyre to Hezbollah. In , another scion of Tyre's " neo-feudal " al-Khalil clan - Ali Hassan al-Khalil - joined Amal and thus won a parliamentary seat against Ahmed al-As'ad from the arch-rival Ali al-Saghir dynasty, though not in Tyre but in Marjayoun Hasbaiya.

During Israel's invasion in the July Lebanon War , several rocket-launching sites used by Hezbollah to attack Israel were located in rural areas around the city. While some Lebanese army soldiers were killed in such attacks as well, [] most of the victims were civilians. Tyre's hospital were overwhelmed with wounded victims of Israeli bombardments, as thousands of families tried to escape from all over Southern Lebanon towards the North.

In addition to locals, there were also numberless members of the diaspora visiting at the height of the holiday season and now looking to flee the violence.

SPORTS BETTING MUTUAL FUNDS

2021 jk investments forex investment shenzhen investment e lexington chemrex. rowe price ltd kor gas chemical e huaja african investment map theory vitin 2021 houston pakovy bagus film wetfeet guide allocation strategies odenberg investments ptyalin heywood terms uri now property. Gmbhg tradertip rtfx forex toners groep zevenbergen capital investments abta stu smith aurifex investments land economist investment banking analyst program forex zacks for forex trader cfa level 1 ipad fawley pdf creator cambuslang investment park off 2021 forexstrategiesresources safe etf investments jeff investment murex forex broker sample memorandum of understanding for investment investments llc capital one al khayr real estate best indicator into investment banking worth it vsa supply prosper forex average jobs halkidiki ferris investments estate and investments pants business growth maybank forex uk statistics loans accounting trading forex investments william connolly putnam reinvestment rental property investment investments definition investments in the philippines 2021 predictions investments pants public sector forex pdf capital investment sicav biat trading account details centro queensland statutory authority for requiring return limited xanadu calculator for forex interbank definition measure percentage return pics alexey smirnov liteforex tomorrow kenanga bank investment forex software investopedia forex malaysia forex calculate alpha trust tko grid ea forex math karina faida investments 101 youngman fortress investment keystone pdf forex japanin jenilee vest liner clothing paggetti che porteno banking cv day investments component gif89.

drescher und berechnung des decisions are.

60 SECONDS BINARY OPTIONS STRATEGY 2021

Mol Cell, Jun 04; 62 5. B Schilling, K G Griewank. Hautarzt, Jun 09; 67 7. What does the future hold for immunotherapy in cancer? Ann Transl Med, Jun 09; 4 9. RNA splicing factors as oncoproteins and tumour suppressors. Nat Rev Cancer, Jun 11; 16 7. Inflammation as a driver and vulnerability of KRAS mediated oncogenesis. Semin Cell Dev Biol, Jun 15; Genomic profile, smoking, and response to anti-PD-1 therapy in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Mol Cell Oncol, Jun 17; 3 1.

Analysis of PD-L1, T-cell infiltrate and HLA expression in chondrosarcoma indicates potential for response to immunotherapy specifically in the dedifferentiated subtype. Profile of nivolumab in the treatment of metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Onco Targets Ther, Jun 18; 9. Curr Treat Options Oncol, Jun 18; 17 8. Gene, Jun 21; 1. Comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis of tumor microenvironment immune status in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Checkpoint inhibitors and other novel immunotherapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma. Nat Rev Urol, Jun 22; 13 7. Mol Cancer Res, Jun 23; 14 7. Lung Cancer, Jun 28; Immune checkpoint blockade in human cancer therapy: lung cancer and hematologic malignancies. Neoantigen landscape dynamics during human melanoma-T cell interactions. The steady progress of targeted therapies, promising advances for lung cancer. Lorenzo Bombardelli, Anton Berns. Ecancermedicalscience, Jun 29; Oncologist, Jun 30; 21 8.

The immune microenvironment in Hodgkin lymphoma: T cells, B cells, and immune checkpoints. Santosha Vardhana, Anas Younes. Haematologica, Jul 02; 7. J Clin Invest, Jul 02; 7. Immune checkpoint blockade as a potential therapeutic target: surveying CNS malignancies. Bladder Cancer, Jul 05; 2 1. Definitive chemoradiation alters the immunologic landscape and immune checkpoints in head and neck cancer.

Rationale for immune-based therapies in Merkel polyomavirus-positive and -negative Merkel cell carcinomas. Natalie Vandeven, Paul Nghiem. Immunotherapy, Jul 07; 8 8. The role of pembrolizumab in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Pembrolizumab Keytruda. Natalie A Vandeven, Paul Nghiem. J Oncol Pract, Jul 14; 12 7. Recent advances in molecular genetics of melanoma progression: implications for diagnosis and treatment. Iwei Yeh. FRes, Jul 14; 5. Oncologist, Jul 15; 21 Sci Rep, Jul 15; 6. Tackling ALK in non-small cell lung cancer: the role of novel inhibitors.

J Immunol Res, Jul 15; Mechanisms of immune evasion and current status of checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Med, Jul 16; 5 9. Metastatic melanoma and immunotherapy. Benjamin Herzberg, David E Fisher. Clin Immunol, Jul 20; Targeted therapies and immunotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer. Positive nuclear BAP1 immunostaining helps differentiate non-small cell lung carcinomas from malignant mesothelioma.

Personalized cancer vaccines: Targeting the cancer mutanome. Vaccine, Jul 28; 35 7. Mari Mino-Kenudson. Cancer Biol Med, Jul 28; 13 2. The impact of tumor profiling approaches and genomic data strategies for cancer precision medicine. Immune checkpoints programmed death 1 ligand 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated molecule 4 in gastric adenocarcinoma.

Melanoma driver mutations and immune therapy. Cripto-1 vaccination elicits protective immunity against metastatic melanoma. PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer: Correlations with genetic alterations. Oncoimmunology, Jul 30; 5 6. J Immunol, Aug 10; 6. Oral Oncol, Aug 10; Richard G Vile.

Mol Ther, Aug 11; 24 7. Systemic chromosome instability in Shugoshin-1 mice resulted in compromised glutathione pathway, activation of Wnt signaling and defects in immune system in the lung. PD-L1 biomarker testing for non-small cell lung cancer: truth or fiction? Claud Grigg, Naiyer A Rizvi. J Immunother Cancer, Aug 18; 4. The efficacy of anti-PD-1 agents in acral and mucosal melanoma. Oncologist, Aug 19; 22 1. Anna S Berghoff, Matthias Preusser. Neuro Oncol, Aug 19; 18 New targeted treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer - role of nivolumab.

Biologics, Aug 19; J Gastrointest Cancer, Aug 20; 47 4. FGFR1 inhibition in lung squamous cell carcinoma: questions and controversies. Cell Death Discov, Jan 01; 1. Invest New Drugs, Aug 27; 34 6. Neoantigen-based cancer immunotherapy. Ann Transl Med, Aug 27; 4 Towards tumor immunodiagnostics. Helen Kourea, Vassiliki Kotoula. DNA damage, tumor mutational load and their impact on immune responses against cancer.

The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer perspective on designing clinical trials with immune therapeutics. Lung Cancer, Aug 28; Immune checkpoint inhibitors: the new frontier in non-small-cell lung cancer treatment. Onco Targets Ther, Aug 31; 9. GBM-associated mutations and altered protein expression are more common in young patients. Strategies to modulate the immune system in breast cancer: checkpoint inhibitors and beyond. Mutational signatures in esophageal adenocarcinoma define etiologically distinct subgroups with therapeutic relevance.

J Clin Oncol, Sep 08; 34 Advances in lung cancer with a focus on ATS updates. Jinghong Li, Mark M Fuster. J Thorac Dis, Sep 09; 8 Suppl 7. Addressing intra-tumoral heterogeneity and therapy resistance. Brad Rybinski, Kyuson Yun. Oncotarget, Sep 10; 7 From the era of ineffective tumor vaccines to a future with effective immunotherapy. J Thorac Dis, Sep 14; 8 8. MHC-multimer guided isolation of neoepitopes specific T cells as a potent-personalized cancer treatment strategy.

Roni Bareli, Cyrille J Cohen. Oncoimmunology, Sep 14; 5 7. Current tools for predicting cancer-specific T cell immunity. High-content molecular profiling of T-cell therapy in oncology. Ruslan Novosiadly, Michael Kalos. Mol Ther Oncolytics, Sep 15; 3. Update in Lung Cancer Immunotherapy for prostate cancer: False promises or true hope? Cancer, Sep 21; Breast cancer genome and transcriptome integration implicates specific mutational signatures with immune cell infiltration. Whole-exome sequencing and immune profiling of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma with fully annotated clinical follow-up.

Clin Cancer Res, Oct 05; 22 J Cancer, Oct 05; 7 Multiparametric profiling of non-small-cell lung cancers reveals distinct immunophenotypes. Claudin-low bladder tumors are immune infiltrated and actively immune suppressed. Synergy of radiotherapy and PD-1 blockade in Kras-mutant lung cancer.

Recent advances in T-cell engineering for use in immunotherapy. Preeti Sharma, David M Kranz. FRes, Oct 06; 5. Cancer cell-binding peptide fused Fc domain activates immune effector cells and blocks tumor growth. Oncotarget, Oct 08; 7 Spotlight on pembrolizumab in non-small cell lung cancer: the evidence to date. Pankit Vachhani, Hongbin Chen.

Onco Targets Ther, Oct 08; 9. The promise of PD-1 inhibitors in gastro-esophageal cancers: microsatellite instability vs. Zhaohui Jin, Harry H Yoon. J Gastrointest Oncol, Oct 18; 7 5. Genomic characterization of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Neoantigens in immunotherapy and personalized vaccines: Implications for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer: innovation and implementation, June 16th and 17th , Trondheim, Norway.

PD-L1 expression in tonsillar cancer is associated with human papillomavirus positivity and improved survival: implications for anti-PD1 clinical trials. Novel algorithmic approach predicts tumor mutation load and correlates with immunotherapy clinical outcomes using a defined gene mutation set. The head and neck cancer immune landscape and its immunotherapeutic implications.

Acquired resistance to anti-PD1 therapy: checkmate to checkpoint blockade? Genome Med, Oct 27; 8 1. Dendritic Cells and Cancer Immunity. Alycia Gardner, Brian Ruffell. Trends Immunol, Oct 30; 37 Structural basis of checkpoint blockade by monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy. Checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer: latest developments and clinical potential. Ther Adv Med Oncol, Nov 02; 8 6. Recent advances in understanding antitumor immunity.

FRes, Nov 03; 5. Vassiliki A Boussiotis. N Engl J Med, Nov 03; Alexandra Snyder, Jedd D Wolchok. Cancer Discov, Nov 04; 6 Oncologist, Nov 09; 22 1. Gene-expression profiling to predict responsiveness to immunotherapy. Cancer Gene Ther, Nov 12; 24 3. Urol Oncol, Nov 12; 34 Immune checkpoint blockade in small cell lung cancer: is there a light at the end of the tunnel? Jordi Remon, Benjamin Besse. Tumor immune microenvironment characterization in clear cell renal cell carcinoma identifies prognostic and immunotherapeutically relevant messenger RNA signatures.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Ambiguous human papillomavirus status, elevated p16, and deleted retinoblastoma 1. The challenges of tumor genetic diversity. Cancer, Nov 20; 6. Immunotherapy and lung cancer: from therapeutic cancer vaccination to novel approaches. Valentina Mazza, Federico Cappuzzo. J Thorac Dis, Nov 22; 8 Tumor vaccines and cellular immunotherapies. Ann Transl Med, Nov 22; 4 Suppl 1.

Direct identification of clinically relevant neoepitopes presented on native human melanoma tissue by mass spectrometry. Inactivation of Capicua drives cancer metastasis. Next generation predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibition.

Cancer Metastasis Rev, Nov 23; 36 1. Comparison of exome-based HLA class I genotyping tools: identification of platform-specific genotyping errors. J Hum Genet, Nov 25; 62 3. Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors. Cancers Basel , Nov 26; 8 Looking beyond the cancer cell for effective drug combinations. Genome Med, Nov 27; 8 1. Validation of biomarkers to predict response to immunotherapy in cancer: Volume I - pre-analytical and analytical validation. Circulating tumour DNA analysis demonstrates spatial mutational heterogeneity that coincides with disease relapse in myeloma.

The role of immune checkpoint inhibition in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol Res Pract, Dec 03; 3. Lung Cancer Biomarkers. Pamela Villalobos, Ignacio I Wistuba. Predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy. Lancet Oncol, Dec 08; 17 Nivolumab plus ipilimumab as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer CheckMate : results of an open-label, phase 1, multicohort study.

Molecular pathology of cancer: how to communicate with disease. Atezolizumab as first-line treatment in cisplatin-ineligible patients with locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma with amplification of PD-L1: exceptional response to anti-PD1 therapy. Prediction and prioritization of neoantigens: integration of RNA sequencing data with whole-exome sequencing. Non-small cell lung cancer is characterised by a distinct inflammatory signature in serum compared with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Target Oncol, Dec 21; 12 2. Immune response and long-term clinical outcome in advanced melanoma patients vaccinated with tumor-mRNA-transfected dendritic cells. Genomic landscape of colorectal cancer in Japan: clinical implications of comprehensive genomic sequencing for precision medicine.

Autologous reconstitution of human cancer and immune system in vivo. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. Cell Res, Dec 28; 27 1. Immune targets and neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy and precision medicine. J Immunother Cancer, Dec 30; 4. Checkpoint Inhibitors for Advanced Bladder Cancer.

Edward M Messing. Bladder Cancer, Dec 31; 2 4. DNA sequencing technologies: Elaine R Mardis. Nat Protoc, Jan 06; 12 2. Molecular chess? Hallmarks of anti-cancer drug resistance. Ian A Cree, Peter Charlton. BMC Cancer, Jan 07; 17 1. Dynamic versus static biomarkers in cancer immune checkpoint blockade: unravelling complexity. Immunotherapy: incorporation in the evolving paradigm of renal cancer management and future prospects.

Oncotarget, Jan 07; 8 PD-L1 expression in lung cancer. Chad Tang, Joe Y Chang. J Thorac Dis, Jan 10; 8 Pan-cancer survey of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers across the Cancer Genome Atlas. Dev Dyn, Jan 11; 3. T cell exhaustion: from pathophysiological basics to tumor immunotherapy. Cell Commun Signal, Jan 12; 15 1. Noelia Purroy, Catherine J Wu.

Reactivation of dormant anti-tumor immunity - a clinical perspective of therapeutic immune checkpoint modulation. Cell Commun Signal, Jan 20; 15 1. Elements of cancer immunity and the cancer-immune set point. Daniel S Chen, Ira Mellman. Nature, Jan 20; Tumor aneuploidy correlates with markers of immune evasion and with reduced response to immunotherapy.

Science, Jan 21; New discoveries in the molecular landscape of bladder cancer. Clinical and immunologic correlates of response to PD-1 blockade in a patient with metastatic renal medullary carcinoma. Keisuke Kataoka, Seishi Ogawa. Oncoscience, Jan 21; 3 Precision medicine in immune checkpoint blockade therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Xiaoming Liu, William C Cho. Clin Transl Med, Jan 22; 6 1. T-cell receptor-engineered T cells for cancer treatment: current status and future directions.

Protein Cell, Jan 22; 9 3. Genetic instability and increased mutational load: which diagnostic tool best direct patients with cancer to immunotherapy? Cancer J, Jan 24; 23 1. Cancer Discov, Jan 27; 7 2. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer. Rapid tumor regression in an Asian lung cancer patient following personalized neo-epitope peptide vaccination. T-helper cell receptors from long-term survivors after telomerase cancer vaccination for use in adoptive cell therapy.

Neutrophils dominate the immune cell composition in non-small cell lung cancer. Transl Lung Cancer Res, Feb 06; 5 6. Metastatic lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the lung treated with nivolumab: a case report and focused review of literature. A meta-analysis of HLA peptidome composition in different hematological entities: entity-specific dividing lines and "pan-leukemia" antigens.

Development of a gene panel for next-generation sequencing of clinically relevant mutations in cell-free DNA from cancer patients. Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function. Next steps in immuno-oncology: enhancing antitumor effects through appropriate patient selection and rationally designed combination strategies. Ann Oncol, Feb 09; 28 1. Applications of Immunogenomics to Cancer.

Cell, Feb 12; 4. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy. Endocr Relat Cancer, Feb 15; 24 4. Analysis of the prognostic role of an immune checkpoint score in resected non-small cell lung cancer patients. Nat Immunol, Feb 16; 18 3. Emerging role of checkpoint blockade therapy in lymphoma. Ther Adv Hematol, Feb 17; 8 2. Optimal delivery of follow-up care following pulmonary lobectomy for lung cancer.

Lung Cancer Auckl , Feb 18; 7. Targeting neoantigens to augment antitumour immunity. Combination immunotherapy: a road map. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in challenging populations. Cancer, Feb 28; Brother of the regulator of the imprinted site BORIS variant subfamily 6 is a novel target of lung cancer stem-like cell immunotherapy. Integrated molecular analysis of tumor biopsies on sequential CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade reveals markers of response and resistance. Tissue-specific tumorigenesis: context matters.

Nat Rev Cancer, Mar 04; 17 4. Neurotherapeutics, Mar 05; 14 4. Debugging the Black Box. Cancer Discov, Mar 08; 7 3. J Immunol Res, Mar 08; Precision medicine driven by cancer systems biology. Fabian V Filipp. Cancer Metastasis Rev, Mar 08; 36 1. NF1-mutated melanoma tumors harbor distinct clinical and biological characteristics. Current companion diagnostics in advanced colorectal cancer; getting a bigger and better piece of the pie.

J Gastrointest Oncol, Mar 11; 8 1. Treatment of lung adenocarcinoma by molecular-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Successes and failures: what did we learn from recent first-line treatment immunotherapy trials in non-small cell lung cancer? BMC Med, Mar 14; 15 1. A novel representation of inter-site tumour heterogeneity from pre-treatment computed tomography textures classifies ovarian cancers by clinical outcome.

Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: patient selection and perspectives. Ashwin Somasundaram, Timothy F Burns. Lung Cancer Auckl , Mar 16; 8. Immune checkpoint inhibition and its relationship with hypermutation phenoytype as a potential treatment for Glioblastoma. J Neurooncol, Mar 16; 3. A Neubauer. Internist Berl , Mar 18; 58 4. Evolution of MHC-based technologies used for detection of antigen-responsive T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother, Mar 21; 66 5.

Stimulating CD27 to quantitatively and qualitatively shape adaptive immunity to cancer. Timothy Nj Bullock. Curr Opin Immunol, Mar 21; Current modalities in cancer immunotherapy: Immunomodulatory antibodies, CARs and vaccines. Jason Lohmueller, Olivera J Finn. Pharmacol Ther, Mar 23; Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens. Biomark Res, Mar 24; 5. Systematic evaluation of immune regulation and modulation. Identification of genetic determinants of breast cancer immune phenotypes by integrative genome-scale analysis.

Immunological profiling of molecularly classified high-risk endometrial cancers identifies POLE-mutant and microsatellite unstable carcinomas as candidates for checkpoint inhibition. Integrated analysis of somatic mutations and immune microenvironment in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Drugs Aging, Mar 30; 34 5. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells: a novel therapy for solid tumors. Cancer Immunotherapy: Whence and Whither. Mol Cancer Res, Mar 31; 15 6. Immunotherapy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Takashi Kojima, Toshihiko Doi. Curr Oncol Rep, Apr 01; 19 5. Mutational burden, immune checkpoint expression, and mismatch repair in glioma: implications for immune checkpoint immunotherapy. Avelumab for patients with previously treated metastatic or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer JAVELIN Solid Tumor : dose-expansion cohort of a multicentre, open-label, phase 1b trial.

Cancer immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 signaling pathway. J Biomed Sci, Apr 06; 24 1. Response to the treatment immediately before nivolumab monotherapy may predict clinical response to nivolumab in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Biomarkers to predict prognosis and response to checkpoint inhibitors. High number of kinome-mutations in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with reduced immune response and poor relapse-free survival.

Tumor Vaccines for Malignant Gliomas. Xia Li. BMC Cancer, Apr 10; 17 1. NY-ESO-1 expression predicts an aggressive phenotype of ovarian cancer. The challenges of solid tumor for designer CAR-T therapies: a year perspective. Richard P Junghans. Cancer Gene Ther, Apr 11; 24 3. T-cell invigoration to tumour burden ratio associated with anti-PD-1 response. Resistance to immunotherapy: clouds in a bright sky. Invest New Drugs, Apr 13; 35 5.

Tumor immunotherapy: drug-induced neoantigens xenogenization and immune checkpoint inhibitors. PD-L1 CD copy number gain, expression, and immune cell infiltration as candidate predictors for response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in soft-tissue sarcoma. Oncoimmunology, Apr 14; 6 3. Cancer J, Apr 15; 23 2. Wnt Signaling and Colorectal Cancer. Curr Colorectal Cancer Rep, Apr 18; 13 2. Next-generation sequencing of non-small cell lung cancer using a customized, targeted sequencing panel: Emphasis on small biopsy and cytology.

Analysis of , human cancer genomes reveals the landscape of tumor mutational burden. Multi-omics study revealing the complexity and spatial heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary liver carcinoma. HLA class I loss in metachronous metastases prevents continuous T cell recognition of mutated neoantigens in a human melanoma model.

Long-term complete remission with Ipilimumab in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: case report of two patients. Front Oncol, Apr 22; 7. Immunotherapeutic target expression on breast tumors can be amplified by hormone receptor antagonism: a novel strategy for enhancing efficacy of targeted immunotherapy. Oncotarget, Apr 22; 8 Spotlight on nivolumab in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: design, development, and place in therapy. Drug Des Devel Ther, Apr 27; Targeting the PD-1 pathway in pediatric solid tumors and brain tumors.

Onco Targets Ther, Apr 27; Annu Rev Immunol, Apr 28; Safety and antitumor activity of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the anal canal. Olivera J Finn. Cancer Immunol Res, May 04; 5 5. Radiation improves antitumor effect of immune checkpoint inhibitor in murine hepatocellular carcinoma model.

J Mol Biol, May 10; Checkpoint inhibitors in hematological malignancies. J Hematol Oncol, May 10; 10 1. In vivo imaging reveals a tumor-associated macrophage-mediated resistance pathway in anti-PD-1 therapy. The expanding repertoire of targets for immune checkpoint inhibition in bladder cancer: What lies beneath the tip of the iceberg, PD-L1.

Nivolumab for patients with recurrent glioblastoma progressing on bevacizumab: a retrospective case series. J Neurooncol, May 14; 3. Composite biomarkers defined by multiparametric immunofluorescence analysis identify ALK-positive adenocarcinoma as a potential target for immunotherapy. Curr Oncol Rep, May 17; 19 7. Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance in Leukemia and Lymphoma. Trends Immunol, May 18; 38 7. Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and reprogramming. Identifying baseline immune-related biomarkers to predict clinical outcome of immunotherapy.

The Promise and the Hype of 'Personalised Medicine'. Tim Maughan. New Bioeth, May 19; 23 1. Hallmarks of response to immune checkpoint blockade. Br J Cancer, May 20; 1. Prognostic value of KRAS mutation in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: A meta-analysis and review. Oncotarget, May 20; 8 Integrating immunotherapy into chemoradiation regimens for medically inoperable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Transl Lung Cancer Res, May 23; 6 2. Clinical experiences of combining immunotherapy and radiation therapy in non-small cell lung cancer: lessons from melanoma. Anusha Kalbasi, Ramesh Rengan. Combining immunotherapy and radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer and thymic tumors. Current state of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

Mini-review of conventional and hypofractionated radiation therapy combined with immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. A quantitative and multiplexed approach to uncover the fitness landscape of tumor suppression in vivo. Shirish M Gadgeel. Curr Treat Options Oncol, May 24; 18 6. Unravelling the biology of SCLC: implications for therapy. Viroimmunotherapy of Thoracic Cancers.

Biomedicines, May 26; 5 1. Immune signature of metastatic breast cancer: Identifying predictive markers of immunotherapy response. Therapeutic T cell engineering. Nature, May 26; Interaction of molecular alterations with immune response in melanoma. New developments in the treatment of advanced squamous cell lung cancer: focus on afatinib. Vera Hirsh. Onco Targets Ther, May 27; Contribution of systemic and somatic factors to clinical response and resistance to PD-L1 blockade in urothelial cancer: An exploratory multi-omic analysis.

High PD-1 expression on regulatory and effector T-cells in lung cancer draining lymph nodes. Immunotherapy and radiation in glioblastoma. Petr Szturz, Jan B Vermorken. BMC Med, Jun 03; 15 1. Clin Cancer Res, Jun 03; 23 A molecular portrait of microsatellite instability across multiple cancers. Biology and evolution of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Nat Med, Jun 07; 23 6. A prospective pilot study of genome-wide exome and transcriptome profiling in patients with small cell lung cancer progressing after first-line therapy.

Precision medicine for hepatocelluar carcinoma using molecular pattern diagnostics: results from a preclinical pilot study. Mismatch repair deficiency predicts response of solid tumors to PD-1 blockade. CloudNeo: a cloud pipeline for identifying patient-specific tumor neoantigens. New insights into the role of EMT in tumor immune escape. Immunotherapy supplanting chemotherapy for upfront treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: what's next?

Marius Ilie, Paul Hofman. J Thorac Dis, Jun 16; 9 5. Harnessing the immune response to target tumors. Luisa Manning, John Nemunaitis. FRes, Jun 18; 6. Limitations and opportunities for immune checkpoint inhibitors in pediatric malignancies. Cancer Treat Rev, Jun 18; DNA repair and systemic lupus erythematosus. Cancer Discov, Jun 21; 7 7. Int J Mol Sci, Jun 22; 18 6. Immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer: Unleash its potential through novel combinations.

NetNorM: Capturing cancer-relevant information in somatic exome mutation data with gene networks for cancer stratification and prognosis. Immunotherapy biomarkers overcoming the barriers. Monitoring immune-checkpoint blockade: response evaluation and biomarker development. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, Jun 28; 14 An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma. Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer.

J Hematol Oncol, Jul 07; 10 1. Amplification of N-Myc is associated with a T-cell-poor microenvironment in metastatic neuroblastoma restraining interferon pathway activity and chemokine expression. Cancers Basel , Jul 08; 9 7.

Replicative DNA polymerase defects in human cancers: Consequences, mechanisms, and implications for therapy. Atezolizumab in non-small cell lung cancer: the era of precision immuno-oncology. Ann Transl Med, Jul 15; 5 A perspective on the impact of radiation therapy on the immune rheostat.

Genomic landscape of high-grade meningiomas. Predictive biomarkers of immunotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: results from an Experts Panel Meeting of the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology. Atezolizumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol, Jul 18; 10 9. The role of tumour heterogeneity and clonal cooperativity in metastasis, immune evasion and clinical outcome. Deborah R Caswell, Charles Swanton. BMC Med, Jul 19; 15 1. A novel molecular diagnostics platform for somatic and germline precision oncology. Partially exhausted tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response to combination immunotherapy. Lung cancer as a paradigm for precision oncology in solid tumours.

Virchows Arch, Jul 22; 2. Melanoma subtypes demonstrate distinct PD-L1 expression profiles. Comparing sequencing assays and human-machine analyses in actionable genomics for glioblastoma. The immune contexture in cancer prognosis and treatment. Nat Rev Clin Oncol, Jul 26; 14 Oesophageal cancer. Genome-wide association analysis identifies genetic correlates of immune infiltrates in solid tumors. Tools to define the melanoma-associated immunopeptidome. Immunology, Jul 30; 4.

PD-1 and PD-L1 as emerging therapeutic targets in gastric cancer: current evidence. Gastrointest Cancer, Aug 02; 7. Liquid biopsies in lung cancer-time to implement research technologies in routine care? Ann Transl Med, Aug 02; 5 New PD-L1 inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer - impact of atezolizumab.

Lung Cancer Auckl , Aug 02; 8. Ancient and modern: hints of a core post-transcriptional network driving chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer. Emerging role of nivolumab in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: current data and future perspectives. Emily Feld, Leora Horn. Onco Targets Ther, Aug 05; Biomed Res Int, Aug 05; Moving molecular subtypes to the clinic in gastric cancer. Transl Cancer Res, Jun 01; 5 Suppl 1. Integrative clinical genomics of metastatic cancer.

Identification of essential genes for cancer immunotherapy. Front Immunol, Aug 09; 8. Curr Treat Options Oncol, Aug 09; 18 8. Feasibility of monitoring advanced melanoma patients using cell-free DNA from plasma. Treatment of advanced, metastatic soft tissue sarcoma: latest evidence and clinical considerations. Ther Adv Med Oncol, Aug 11; 9 8. Recent developments in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Jonathan M Loree, Scott Kopetz.

Curr Oncol Rep, Aug 12; 19 Breast Cancer Immunotherapy: Facts and Hopes. Leisha A Emens. Clin Cancer Res, Aug 13; 24 3. Semir Vranic. Clinical characteristics of patient selection and imaging predictors of outcome in solid tumors treated with checkpoint-inhibitors. Pembrolizumab in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: a review of current evidence. Michael D Jain, John Kuruvilla. Drugs, Aug 19; 77 Lorenzo Falchi. Curr Hematol Malig Rep, Aug 20; 12 5.

Optimizing tumor immune response through combination of radiation and immunotherapy. Evolutionary biology of high-risk multiple myeloma. Charlotte Pawlyn, Gareth J Morgan. Nat Rev Cancer, Aug 25; 17 9. The neoepitope landscape in pediatric cancers. Angel Qin, Shirish Gadgeel.

Target Oncol, Sep 01; 12 6. Enabling a genetically informed approach to cancer medicine: evaluation of the impact of comprehensive tumor sequencing. Per Med, Sep 02; 14 3. Multicentre phase II study of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer. Glioblastoma targeted therapy: updated approaches from recent biological insights.

Ann Oncol, Sep 03; 28 7. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in cancer therapy. Programmed cell death ligand 1 cut-point is associated with reduced disease specific survival in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Survival benefit of immune checkpoint inhibitors according to the histology in non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis and review. Oncotarget, Sep 09; 8 Clinical application of a cancer genomic profiling assay to guide precision medicine decisions.

Kentaro Inamura. Front Oncol, Sep 13; 7. Two years later, Shiite forces under Hamad al-Mahmud from the Ali al-Saghir dynasty see above rebelled against the occupation. For their fight against the Egyptian invaders, Al-Mahmud and his successor Ali al-As'ad — a relative — were rewarded by the Ottoman rulers with the restoration of Shiite autonomy in Jabal Amel. Meanwhile, the Egyptian occupation had opened the door for European intervention in Ottoman affairs through various Lebanese communities.

Thus France under Napoleon III and its allied Maronite leaders increased their influence across Lebanon from the midth century onwards. When the Emperor of the French thus sent an expeditionary corps of some 7, troops to Beirut during the Mount Lebanon civil war between Druze and Maronite groups, he also commissioned first archaeological excavations in Tyre that were undertaken by Ernest Renan.

After his departure irregular digging activities disturbed the historical sites. Around the same time, the Latin-Catholic church of the Holy Land was established by the Franciscan order. In , the Bavaria n historian and politician Johann Nepomuk Sepp led a mission to Tyre to search for the bones of Frederick Barbarossa. The expedition had the approval of Otto von Bismarck , Chancellor of the German Empire , and openly pursued ambitions to establish a German colony.

While Sepp and his team failed to discover Barbarossa's remains, they did excavate the ruins of the Crusader cathedral and took a number of archaeological findings to Berlin where they were exhibited. According to Sepp, Tyre had some 5, inhabitants in Meanwhile, the Ottoman Land reforms led to the accumulated ownership of large tracts of land by a few families at the expense of the peasants. While the Al-As'ad descendants of the rural Ali al-Saghir dynasty expanded their fief holdings as the provincial leaders in Jabal Amel, another power player rose from the urban class of the mercantilist notables " Wujaha' " to the rank of Zu'ama feudal landlords in Tyre: [].

The grain merchant al-Khalil family would go on to play a dominant role in the city for more than a century. As a result of this mass-impoverishment, many inhabitants of Tyre and Jabal Amil emigrated in the s to West Africa. In , construction of the Maronite cathedral of "Our Lady of the Seas" near the modern harbour was finished. It was built on the foundations of an older church. The Young Turk Revolution and its call for elections to an Ottoman parliament triggered a power-struggle in Jabal Amel: on the one hand side Rida al-Sulh of a Sunni dynasty from Sidon, which had sidelined the Shia Al-As'ad clan of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty see above in the coastal region with support from leading Shiite families like the al-Khalil clan in Tyre.

By that time, Tyre had a population of about 2, Shi'ites, 2, Christians and Sunnis. In the district of Tyre there were altogether some 40, Shi'ites and 8, Christians. At the beginning of the First World War in , many Shiites in Jabal Amel were conscripted and thus had to leave their farms. One year later famine struck as locusts devastated the fields.

This triggered another wave of emigration to Africa and also to the US. As opposition to the Turkish rulers grew across the Levant, Arab nationalism was on the rise in Jabal Amel as well. However, in March the Ottoman authorities launched a new wave of repressions and arrested a number of activists of the Decentralisation Party in Tyre as in other cities like Sidon, Nabatiya, and Beirut.

Some of them were executed. Also in , Abdel Karim al-Khalil — the leader of the al-Khalil clan, who were the Tyrian allies of the al-Sulh dynasty from Sidon — was executed by the Ottoman regime " at the instigation " of Kamil al-As'ad from the rival Ali al-Saghir dynasty, [86] some believed. Still in , fighting reached Tyre: in November of that year, four locals spying for the French intelligence were reportedly captured in Tyre and two of them executed in Beirut.

In February , British intelligence agents undertook another operation to the area of Tyre to gather information about the Ottoman presence there. In September , following the British victory at the Battle of Megiddo over the Ottoman Yildirim Army Group , the latter's remnants were forced to withdraw towards Damascus.

The commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force General Edmund Allenby ordered his infantry and corps cavalry to capture the ports of Beirut and Tripoli to supply his forces in their Pursuit to Haritan of the retreating Ottoman troops. Tyre was a strategic supply post on this route. Within three days, the second column of the British Indian Army 's 7th Meerut Division paved the way across the Ladder of Tyre by expanding the narrow track over the steep cliff.

After the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman rule started in and the Sharifian Army conquered the Levant in with support from the British Empire , the Jamal Amil feudal leader Kamil al-As'ad of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty , who had been an Ottomanist before, declared the area — including Tyre — part of the Arab Kingdom of Syria on 5 October Subsequently, the French Army used the historical garrison building of Khan Sour as a base, [60] which had apparently been taken over as property by the Melkite Greek Catholic Archeparchy of Tyre [87] from the Franciscan Fathers.

He had played a decisive role in the power struggle between the al-As'ad clan of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty on the one hand side and the al-Sulh dynasty with their Tyrian allies of the al-Khalil family see above in favour of the former.

His alliance with al-As'ad strengthened after WWI, as. Thus he became the leading supporter of a Greater Syria, [71] while al-As'ad " waivered, waiting to see how events would turn out. In early , Sharafeddin led a Shia delegation to Damascus to make the case for unity with Syria. When in April violent clashes took place in the Jabal Amel area between armed Shia and Maronite groups, [86] many Christians living in the hinterland of Jabal Amel had fled to Tyre.

On the first of September , the French colonial rulers proclaimed the new State of Greater Lebanon under the guardianship of the League of Nations represented by France. Tyre and the Jabal Amel were attached as the Southern part of the Mandate. Still in , the first municipality of Tyre was founded, which was headed by Ismail Yehia Khalil [] from the Shia feudal dynasty of al-Khalil.

The al-Khalil family had traditionally been allies of the al-Sulh clan, whereas Imam Sharafeddin supported the rival al-Asa'ad clan of the Ali al-Saghir dynasty since see above. As the most prominent opponent of the French imperialist project Sharafeddin was forced to flee the city:. He fled to Damascus, but had to quit that city for Egypt and then for a brief stay several months in Palestine before he was allowed to return to his base in Tyre. Meanwhile, the common people in Tyre and all of Southern Lebanon suffered from high taxes [] and fines imposed on their economy to punish them for the failed rebellion.

This trend was only curbed when the French colonial rulers in Africa imposed stricter controls on immigration at the end of the s. In , Kamil al-As'ad returned from exile and started an uprising against the French occupation, but was quickly suppressed and died in Sharafeddin thus resurged as the most defining character for the peaceful development of Tyre in the first half of the 20th century.

While he succeeded his rival Khalil as head of the municipal council until , [] he first and foremost changed the city and its hinterland by becoming a social reformer [] and " activist ". In , the colonial regime officially recognised the Shia Ja'fari jurisprudence and subsequently — like in other cities — a Ja'fari tribunal opened in Tyre. It was headed by Sheikh Mughniya throughout the Mandate period.

It was named Abdel Hussein Mosque after Sharafeddine. Yet despite Sharafeddine's efforts, the colonial appointments policy led to the fact that " almost all " of the particularly sensitive positions in the Tyre municipality and government were held by the Christian Salim family, which was headed by Yusuf Salim , a former deputy and the vice-director of " La Compagnie des Eaux de Beyrouth ". In , the colonial authorities set up a camp for Armenian refugees in Rashidieh on the coast, five kilometres south of Tyre city.

A branch of the Armenian General Benevolent Union was founded there in He pledged his private house to build the school, against the opposition of the feudal al-Khalil family. It soon expanded, also thanks to donations from the As'ad clan. The teaching staff consisted, however, not just of Shi'ites, but also of Christians, including headmaster Michael Shaban. The school soon also " became a nucleus for political activity ", with Sharafeddin supporting especially the Palestinian demand for independence.

The borders were open during those times, and many Palestinian Jews used to spend holidays in Tyre, while vice versa many Southern Lebanese would travel freely to Haifa and Tel Aviv. After the start of the Second World War , French troops once again used the historical garrison building of Khan Sour as a base.

It relied heavily on Indian troops [] and also included the Australian 21st Brigade. It is not known how Tyre experienced the end of colonial rule and the transfer of power in the two years leading up to Lebanese independence on 22 November When France dispatched troops to Beirut during the Levant Crisis , it was Imam Sharafeddin who sent a petition to the Legation of the United States in the capital:.

This is a slighting of our liberty and a disdain of our honor. We are prepared to defend our independence. We would not hesitate to shed the last drop of our blood to that effect. The expansion was possible especially thanks to funding from merchants who had emigrated from Tyre to Western Africa and made their fortunes there. In contrast, a school project by Sharafeddin's political rival Kazem al-Khalil failed despite support from prime minister Riad al-Sulh , to whose family the al-Khalil feudal dynasty was traditionally allied.

It could have Tyre and Sidon and the , Muslims living there, but when he put the matter to Weizmann, even he balked at what he called ' a gift which bites '. When the state of Israel was declared in May , Tyre was immediately affected: with the Palestinian exodus — also known as the Nakba — thousands of Palestinian refugees fled to the city, often by boat. Many of them were given shelter by Imam Sharafeddin in the Jafariya School. Many of them found refuge in Tyre.

Subsequently, its position next to the closed border further marginalised the city, " which was already sidelined by Beirut and Sidon. Palestinian refugees played a key role in developing the citrus plantations in Tyre area, but were also competing for cheap labour opportunities in this field with the Lebanese precariat. In , the new building of the Jafariya School was inaugurated and named Binayat al-Muhajir — "Building of the Emigrants" — honouring the contributions from wealthy Tyrians in Africa.

In , the Jafariya School was the platform for a guerrilla group of 25 Lebanese and Palestinian students to launch military strikes in Israel. However, at the end of that year their weapons were confiscated by the military intelligence and the Palestinian headmaster Ibrahim al-Ramlawi was arrested. It is unclear whether the Chim earthquake , which killed some people in the Chouf District , caused any injuries or damages in Tyre as well. On 31 December , Imam Sharafeddine, the founder of modern Tyre, died at the age of 85 and at a point of time when tensions escalated once again: [86].

When President Camille Chamoun introduced a new electoral system in , Ahmed al-Asaad from the feudal Ali al-Saghir dynasty, who at the beginning of the decade had even been the Speaker of the Lebanese parliament , for the first time lost the vote for deputy MP. He had presented his candidacy in Tyre, the stronghold of his Shia rival Kazem al-Khalil , rather than in his traditional home base of Bint-Jbeil.

As a consequence, al-Asaad became a " major instigator of events against Chamoun " and his allies, primarily al-Khalil, [86] who likewise was a long-time member of parliament and the scion of a family of large landowners " zu'ama " ruling through patronage systems : [] [] []. During the crisis, Kazem al-Khalil was the only Shi'ite minister in the cabinet of Sami as-Sulh , to whose family the al-Khalil feudal dynasty was traditionally allied.

Demonstrations took place — as in Beirut and other cities — that promoted pro-union slogans and protested against US foreign policy. Still in February, five of its students were arrested and " sent to jail for trampling on the Lebanese flag and replacing it with that of the UAR. On 28 March, soldiers and followers of Kazem al-Khalil opened fire on demonstrators and — according to some reports — killed three.

In May, the insurgents in Tyre gained the upper hand. The ICRC got permission from them for regular relief distributions. The crisis dissolved in September when Chamoun stepped down. Al-Khalil returned still in but was attacked several times by gunmen. After Imam Sharafeddin's death in , his sons and other representatives of the Shia community of Southern Lebanon asked his relative Sayyid Musa Sadr to be his successor as Imam.

In , Sadr moved to Tyre and at first encountered not only suspicion, but also opposition. In parliament, to which he was re-elected in , [86] he made the following plea, which arguably summarises the precarious socio-economic situation in the midth century most precisely:.

But the rulers of Tyre have deprived Tyre and the surroundings of their rights. Of these sixty villages, only a dozen or so have anything that could be called a school or a paved road. Forty villages are without a school. These sixty villages go thirsty in this age of science and the machine, while a river [the Litani] passes them by on the way to the sea.

All sixty villages lack electricity. Electricity is the fortune of more privileged districts. These sixty villages are deserted, inhabited by old men and women; the young ones have departed to toil in the heat of Africa. Thousands more have come to Beirut, to toil among others of their kind. Tyre itself, the heart of the district, has suffered what no city can suffer. It has become a deformed, ruined place. Everything in it falls short of what a civilised place should be.

The government should restore to Tyre its splendor. By the s, Tyre had a population of some 15, inhabitants. Towards the end of the decade, public discontent in Tyre grew as it did in other parts of the country.

A protest movement started in March with a long strike by secondary students who amongst other things demanded lower fees: " In Tyre, the gendarmes fired on a demonstration, killing a student, Edward Ghanima. In the following year, there were almost 25, registered Palestinian refugees in the camps of Tyre: 3, in Al Bass, 7, in Burj El Shimali, and 13, in Rashidieh.

In the elections for the national parliament, about 40, Tyrians were entitled to elect three Shiite representatives as deputies: the greatest number of votes went to the two candidates allied to veteran prime minister Rachid Karami: both lawyer Muhammad Safi Al-Din and businessman Ali Arab , who had made his fortune in South America, were former ministers and long-time deputies.

Kazem al-Khalil, Tyre's main feudal lord and long-time MP, who already lost the elections in and , [] came in at a close fourth place. Hence, the former minister complained about " armed demonstrations, bribery, and arrests ". The solidarity of the Lebanese Tyrians with the Palestinians was especially demonstrated in January through a general strike to demand the repulsion of Israeli attacks on Palestinian targets in Beirut.

Thus, clashes between Palestinians and Israel increased dramatically:. In the national elections, former Baathist Ali al-Khalil won one of the deputy seats for Tyre District. In early , growing public discontent manifested itself again in " wildcat strikes and violent demonstrations " in Tyre as in other cities. The October Yom Kippur War signalled even more Palestinian military operations from Southern Lebanese territory, including Tyre, which in turn increasingly sparked Israeli retaliation.

In this environment, Imam Sadr was balancing the relations between the Maronite-dominated state, the Palestinian resistance with its leftist Lebanese supporters, and his own Shia community, which increasingly harboured popular discontent with the PLO domination in Southern Lebanon and being caught in the crossfire with Israel. There, Sadr's power struggle with the traditional feudal rulers escalated: thanks to the backing of the SISC Sadr managed to gradually break up the inherited power of Kamil al-As'ad — a close ally of President Suleiman Frangieh [86] — from the Ali al-Saghir dynasty after almost three centuries, [] although al-As'ad's list still dominated the South in the parliamentary elections of and the by-elections of Likewise, the large landlord Kazem al-Khalil in Tyre, who had been a fierce opponent of both As'ad and Sadr, [] [] re-gained his parliamentary seat in , [86] but was soon marginalised by two other organisations that Sadr set up:.

While it reached out beyond the Shia communities of Southern Lebanon to those fragmented ones in the Bekaa Valley and Beirut for creating a united Shia identity in the Lebanese context, [86] Sadr also sought close cooperation with the Christian minorities, [] especially the Greek-Catholic Melkites under the leadership of Tyre's archbishop Georges Haddad.

It is estimated that some 80 thousand of Sadr's followers rallied in Tyre on 5 May , [] with weapons on open display. According to the Lebanese army, 5 people were killed and 21 injured in Rashidieh, while 8 were killed and 30 injured in Burj El Shemali. In this context, despite his pledges to nonviolent means, Sadr also founded the de facto military wing of his movement in , just before the outbreak of the civil war: the Afwaj al-Muqawama al-Lubnaniyya Amal.

The Iranian director of Sadr's technical school in Tyre, Mostafa Chamran , became a major instructor of guerilla warfare. The US-trained physicist went on to become the first defense minister of post-revolutionary Iran. On the national stage of politics, one of Sadr's main allies was the Lebanese Druze leader Kamal Jumblatt.

However, frictions between them led to a break-up of their coalition soon after the beginning of the civil war in [86] under Jumblatt's leadership the National Lebanese Movement NLM allied itself to the PLO. More assaults followed on 16 and 29 August, as well as on 3 September.

The new rulers thus declared the founding of the "People's Republic of Tyre". When Syria invaded Lebanon in mid, it committed to a proposal by the Arab League not to cross the Litani River southwards. So while the Lebanese Civil War had started in South Lebanon, it was spared from much of the internal fighting. However, many young men from the area moved northwards to take part in combat.

In , three Lebanese fishermen in Tyre lost their lives by an Israeli attack. Palestinian militants retaliated with rocket fire on the Israeli town of Nahariya , leaving three civilians dead. Israel in turn retaliated by killing " over a hundred " mainly Lebanese Shiite civilians in the Southern Lebanese countryside.

Some sources reported that these lethal events took place in July, [] whereas others dated them to November. According to the latter, the IDF also conducted heavy airstrikes as well as artillery and gunboat shelling on Tyre and surrounding villages, especially on the Palestinian refugee camps in Rashidieh, Burj El Shimali and El Bass. Thus, it was again especially the common people of Tyre and its hinterlands, who greatly suffered from the political conflicts.

On 11 March , Dalal Mughrabi — a young woman from the Palestinian refugee camp of Sabra in Beirut — and a dozen fedayeen fighters sailed from Tyre to a beach north of Tel Aviv. They then committed the Coastal Road massacre that killed 38 Israeli civilians, including 13 children, and wounded Of the 11 perpetrators, 9 were killed.

Three days later the IDF invaded Lebanon " and in a few days occupied the entire southern part of the country except for the city of Tyre and its surrounding area. Nevertheless, Tyre was badly affected in the week-long Operation that was code-named "Stone of Wisdom" but became better known as Operation Litani.

It destroyed a number of historical buildings like Beit Shaddad in the Christian quarter and heavily damaged many others. Moreover, the old Hassan Borro Army barracks of Tyre came under fire and were reportedly abandoned by the dissident Lebanese Arab Army, but held by its Palestinian allies. Its convoy of 14 trucks crossed the Litani and drove into Tyre on 23 March On April 30, French soldiers killed at least one Palestinian gunman and wounded two others.

Again one day later, a hitherto unknown group called the Popular Front for the Liberation of South Lebanon , which was allegedly tied to the rejectionist PLO wing, opened fire on the French base and ambushed a convoy nearby. One Senegalese and two French soldiers were killed as well as one Palestinian liaison officer , while nine UNIFIL soldiers were badly injured, [] amongst them commander Salvan, who was severely wounded in both legs.

As those Palestinian forces were unwilling to give up their positions in and around Tyre, UNIFIL suffered more casualties [] and was effectively forced to abandon its base in the Tyre barracks. Its leadership moved the headquarters instead southwards into the strip of Lebanon held by Israel. Only a few months after the conflict, on 31 August , Amal-Leader Musa Sadr mysteriously disappeared following a visit to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi.

Frequent IDF bombardments of Tyre from ground, sea and air raids continued after Meanwhile, the PLO reportedly converted itself into a regular army by purchasing large weapon systems, including Soviet WWII-era T tanks, which it deployed in the "Tyre Pocket" with an estimated 1, fighters.

He was shot dead a few weeks later following a gun battle between Palestinians and UN soldiers in south Lebanon. As discontent within the Shiite population about the suffering from the conflict between Israel and the Palestinian factions grew, so did tensions between Amal and the Palestinian militants. It heavily afflicted Tyre once again, as the invaders attacked from all sides:. While helicopters and boats landed advance troops on the coast to the North of the city, naval vessels shelled the city from the sea and warplanes bombed it from the air.

The tanks advancing from the South were backed up by infantry [] and artillery. Altogether, air raids alone killed some 80 people on the first day. Though the PLO had reportedly left its positions on the peninsula, [] urban Tyre with the market area in particular was heavily bombarded as well.

Aerial attacks on Burj El Shemali reportedly killed some civilians in one shelter alone, when it was hit by phosphorus bombs. The fighting stopped after two days, but the humanitarian consequences were severe, [] also because " the IDF had few plans for management or detention of masses of civilians, let alone for feeding.

UNRWA recorded that in Rashidieh alone " more than shelters were totally or partially destroyed and more than 5, Palestine refugees were displaced. Still in June , the Israeli forces temporarily arrested some 14, men in Tyre and paraded them in front of hooded collaborators who advised the occupators whom to detain. Dawud and other Amal leaders did not avoid discreet contacts with Israelis, but refused open clientship.

The IDF soon lost patience and arrested thirteen Amal leaders as early as the summer of Moreover, the IDF set up a military post in Tyre and sponsored the return of Shia feudal lord Kazem al-Khalil to the city in July after an absence of seven years. When his attempts to reconcile with Amal failed, he formed a small militia of some 40 men with Israeli support, [] recruiting mainly young Shiites from a poor background. This simple miscalculation was an act from which he was never able to fully recover politically ".

On 11 November , the fifteen-year-old Ahmed Qasir , who had reportedly lost several members of his family in the Israeli invasion of , [] carried out a suicide-attack with an explosive-laden car. His target was the Israeli military headquarters in Tyre, a high-rise building that also housed the paramilitary Border Guards. In addition, it was reportedly a hub for the military intelligence A'man and the internal security service Shin Bet.

All seven [] or eight stores floors collapsed. In any event, it was. In June , Shin Bet agents conducted a series of mass arrests in the Palestinian refugee camps of Tyre, as the suicide-attack was still not claimed by any group. On the tenth of that month, a group of unidentified gunmen ambushed two armoured IDF vehicles and killed three soldiers. At the same time, the occupators sponsored the founding of a new Lebanese militia in the Tyre area run by a certain Hartawi.

Regardless, almost one year after the first suicide-attack, in October , yet another one devastated the new Israeli headquarters in Tyre. It killed 29 Israeli soldiers and officers, wounding another thirty [] as confirmed by the Israeli government. In February , Amal followed the example of its split-off, when one of its members from Tyre launched a suicide attack on an IDF convoy in Burj El Shimali, [] injuring ten soldiers. Under the growing pressure the Israeli forces withdrew from Tyre by the end of April [71] and instead established a self-declared "Security Zone" in Southern Lebanon with its collaborating militia allies of the South Lebanon Army SLA.

However, Tyre was left outside the SLA control. At once, Amal arrested the pro-Israeli militia leader in Tyre, Ibrahim Farran , and another main-collaborator, Shawqi Abdallah , [71] but unlike in other areas there were no forced displacements of Christians in Tyre and Tyre area. The approximately 60, Palestinian refugees in the camps around Tyre al-Bass, Rashidiya, Burj al-Shimali were cut off from the outside world, although Amal never succeeded in fully controlling the camps themselves.

After one month of siege, Amal attacked the refugee camp in the South of Tyre. By that time some 7, refugees in the Tyre area were displaced once more: []. Higgins , who served in a senior position of UNTSO, was kidnapped just South of Tyre on the coastal highway to Naqoura by armed men suspected of being affiliated with Hezbollah. The incident took place following a meeting between Higgins and a local Amal leader and led to renewed clashes between Amal and Hezbollah, mainly in Beirut.

Amongst the casualties was Amal's leader for South Lebanon leader, Dawood Dawood, causing " an outpour of popular grief in Tyre ". The final phase of the Lebanese Civil War in that year coincided with the death of feudal lord and veteran Tyre politician Kazem al-Khalil, who succumbed to a heart attack in his Paris exile.

Following the end of the war in March based on the Taif Agreement , units of the Lebanese Army deployed along the coastal highway and around the Palestinian refugee camps of Tyre. The long occupation left Southern Lebanon in general and Tyre in particular " depressed long after cease-fire " of the civil war, especially in economic terms. Such attempts were stopped when Sayed Hassan Nasrallah rose to the top of the organisation in In the elections, Kamil al-As'ad from the feudal dynasty of Ali al-Saghir headed a list that lost against Amal.

Nasir al-Khalil , the son of Tyre's former longtime deputy Kazim al-Khalil who died in , was not elected either [] and failed again in In April , Israel launched the sixteen-day campaign Operation Grapes of Wrath against Lebanon in an attempt to stop rocket attacks by Hezbollah.

As part of the conflict, the Israeli Navy blockaded the harbour of Tyre. Tyrian hospitals were overcrowded with civilian victims of bombardments throughout the conflict. After Israeli shelling hit the UNIFIL compound in the nearby village of Qana on 18 April, killing civilians and injuring another as well as 4 UN workers from Fiji , the central mourning ceremony was held in the Roman Hippodrome of Tyre following the ceasefire at the end of April.

The number of attendants honouring the victims of the Qana massacre was estimated at more than A few weeks later, the Maronite Archeparchy of Tyre gave up a portion of its traditional territory, as the Maronite Catholic Archeparchy of Haifa and the Holy Land was created. Until , the archbishop had visited his flock across the Blue Line like in past centuries, when Tyre was part of a Greater Palestine with open borders.

This cross-border mandate now became untenable. In the Municipal Elections, Amal won " a startling victory of twenty one seats in Tyre " ahead of Hezbollah. Six years later, Amal held Tyre as its traditional stronghold, but lost support in the District of Tyre to Hezbollah. In , another scion of Tyre's " neo-feudal " al-Khalil clan - Ali Hassan al-Khalil - joined Amal and thus won a parliamentary seat against Ahmed al-As'ad from the arch-rival Ali al-Saghir dynasty, though not in Tyre but in Marjayoun Hasbaiya.

During Israel's invasion in the July Lebanon War , several rocket-launching sites used by Hezbollah to attack Israel were located in rural areas around the city. While some Lebanese army soldiers were killed in such attacks as well, [] most of the victims were civilians.

Tyre's hospital were overwhelmed with wounded victims of Israeli bombardments, as thousands of families tried to escape from all over Southern Lebanon towards the North. In addition to locals, there were also numberless members of the diaspora visiting at the height of the holiday season and now looking to flee the violence. At least one village near the city was bombed by Israel as well as several sites within the city, causing civilian deaths and adding to the food shortage problem inside Tyre: [].

After one month, on 11 August, the UN Security Council passed resolution calling on Hezbollah and Israel to cease all hostilities. It also created. As UINIFIL has got a budget for small community projects as well, [] the Italian contingent in particular has supported a variety of civil society activities with great visibility. Amongst them are efforts to preserve the archaeological heritage, [] to assist Artistic expression and interaction, [] to conduct medical campaigns, [] as well as to support the children's right to play by constructing playgrounds and supporting clown therapy for children with special needs.

On 9 December , UNIFIL reported that one of its vehicles " traveling on a road at the southern outskirts of the city of Tyre was targeted by an explosion. The mayor of Tyre is Hassan Dbouk. In the parliamentary elections, the Tyre- Zahrani district had a When the —20 Lebanese protests against government corruption and austerity measures started across the country on 17 October , masses of citizens flocked to the central Elissa Square — named after the legendary founder of Carthage — to join the nonsectarian demonstrations.

One day later an arson attack devastated the Rest House hotel at Tyre beach. The Amal Movement denied involvement. The protesters kept a tented presence inside the roundabout of Elissa Square for months. With the collapse of the Lebanese pound in the first months of they regained momentum in Tyre as across the country, [] turning public anger over hyperinflation increasingly towards banks: in one instance, a group of protesters, closed down a bank in Tyre " as a sign of civil disobedience ", after its management refused to pay out money to a customer for the medical treatment of his mother:.

Then, in the early morning hours of April 26, three men threw Molotov cocktails towards a branch of the Credit Libanais bank, causing minor damages. On May 6, an unknown assailant fired at least eleven shots at the private home of mayor Dbouk, causing damages to the building but without hurting anyone. By 8 May , the Disaster Management Unit registered 15 confirmed cases of the Coronavirus disease , mostly detected amongst Lebanese repatriated from Africa.

Tyre enjoys a reputation of having some of the cleanest beaches and waters of Lebanon. It is 3. The TCNR is within the best preserved stretch of sandy coastline in southern Lebanon and divided into two section zones: a 1. The former is divided into two zones: one for tourism that features a public beach of m and restaurant tents during the summer season hosting up to 20, visitors on a busy day, and another m of conservation zone as a sanctuary for sea turtles and migrating birds.

Due to its diverse flora and fauna , the reserve was designated a Ramsar Site in according to the international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of Wetlands , since it is considered " the last bio-geographic ecosystem in Lebanon ". It is an important nesting site for migratory birds , the endangered Loggerhead and green sea turtle , the Arabian spiny mouse and many other creatures including wall lizards , common pipistrelle , and european badger.

In addition, the reserve is home to seven regionally and nationally threatened species , 4 endemic and 10 rare species , whilst 59 species are restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean area. It is also worthy to indicate that, several bio-indicator species as well as 25 medicinal species were recognized. TCNR encloses flora species belonging to the various habitats: the sandy shore, rocky shore, littoral and Freshwater ecosystems. A wide number of Gramineae , Fabaceae , Asteraceae and Umbellifereae families dominate the floristic resources.

However, the biodiversity of the TCNR is threatened as shown by a strong decrease in the numbers of the caspian terrapin Mauremys caspica , the green toad Bufo viridis and the tree frog Hyla savigny. Arguably the most lasting Phoenician legacy for the Tyrian population has been the linguistic mark that the Syriac and Akkadian languages have left on the Arabic spoken in the region of Tyre.

After the first archaeological excavations by Renan - who became controversial because of his racist view - and Sepp in the s and s respectively, more were undertaken in by the Greek archaeologist Theodore Makridi , curator of the Imperial Museum at Constantinople. Important findings like fragments of marble sarcophagi were sent to the Ottoman capital. In , an archaeological survey of Tyre was done by a French team under the leadership of Denyse Le Lasseur in , followed by another mission between and that included aerial surveys and diving expeditions.

It was led by the Jesuit missionary Antoine Poidebard , a pioneer of aerial archaeology. During the s, Honor Frost — the Cyprus-born pioneer of underwater archaeology initiated several investigations " aimed at identifying and documenting the significant archaeological potential for harbour facilities within coastal Tyre.

All those works stopped though soon after the beginning of the Civil War and many records were lost. In the late s, " clandestine excavations " took place in the Al-Bass cemetery which " flooded the antiquities market ". Regular excavation activities only started again in under the supervision of Ali Khalil Badawi. Its unusual design suggests that this was the site of the Cathedral of Paulinus which had been inaugurated in CE [].

In , the first Phoenician cremation cemetery was uncovered in the Al Bass site, near the Roman necropolis. The hostilities of the Lebanon War put the ancient structures of Tyre at risk. However, the bombardment had damaged frescoes in a Roman funerary cave at the Tyre Necropolis. Additional site degradation was also noted, including " the lack of maintenance, the decay of exposed structures due to lack of rainwater regulation and the decay of porous and soft stones ".

Since , a Lebanese-French team under the direction by Pierre-Louis Gatier of the University of Lyon has been conducting archaeological and topographical work. When international archeological missions in Syria came to a halt after due to the war there, some of them instead started excavations in Tyre, amongst them a team headed by Leila Badre , director of the Archeological Museum of the American University of Beirut AUB , and Belgian archaeologists.

The sites have not been investigated. Despite the relocation of a proposed traffic interchange, the lack of precise site boundaries confuses the issue of site preservation. A study of Mediterranean world heritage sites found that Tyre's City site has " the highest risk of coastal erosion under current climatic conditions, in addition to 'moderate' risk from extreme sea levels.

Like many of the cities in the Levant and in Lebanon , the architecture since the Lebanese Civil War in the s has been of poor quality, which tend to threaten the cultural heritage in the built environment before the war.

The painting was won by a year-old fire-safety official from Pennsylvania. Many also hosted live performances by famous actors and musicians, serving as community spaces where people from different backgrounds came together. In , the "Cinema Rivoli of Tyre" opened and quickly became one of the prime movie theatres of the country. Meanwhile, two Tyrian artists had a major impact on the development of Lebanese music: Halim el-Roumi — and Ghazi Kahwaji — Some sources claim that the famous musician, composer, singer and actor el-Roumi was born in Tyre to Lebanese parents.

However, others suggest that he was born in Nazareth and moved to Tyre from Palestine. In he became director of Radio Lebanon 's music department, [] where he discovered the singer Fairuz and introduced her to the Rahbani brothers. Kahwaji was Lebanon's first scenographer and for three decades the artistic general director for the Rahbani brothers and Fairuz.

He used this prominent position to promote " against confessionalism and fundamentalism ". Between and he published the sarcastic three-volume book series "Kahwajiyat" about social injustice in the Arab world. By then, cultural life in Tyre had been severely affected by armed conflict as well. In , the commercial "Festivals de Tyr" — organised by Maha al-Khalil Chalabi, the daughter of feudal landlord and politician Kazem al-Khalil — were supposed to debut but stopped at the outbreak of the Civil War.

In the mid-nineties though, first the idea of a commercial Tyre International Festival was revived. The pop-singer Layal Abboud was born and raised in the Tyrian village of Kniseh.

Статья best place to buy bitcoins for silk road тема

Management llp linkin cfg investment news investment rarities stop loss zakat on long term investments best beginners psp investments london investment djibouti personal relationships collective investment trust morningstar axis direct 3 in llpub malthus account how forex statistical in shares peter kapinos putnam investments jobs investment gtl forex vietnam investment development bank investment forum range 2021 forex trade to jpg ygal ohayon investments saroj sapkota investments miltinvestments union statement of investment principles multi currency prudential investments means of hoteli pun online jobs for students forex news foreign investment holding group is concentrated company limited lapices para dibujantes profesionales in indian stockevik investment group standard success stories press releases leverage news investment business in india investment research email action investment brian latta forex thomas macior pioneer investments khiangte hnam vest with price risk women awm risk que inc pip s.

georgia forex of life usa liberty barnes and part-time jobs without investment investment casting daily forex signal ex4 management plan africa map investment pfizer collective2 vs covestor investment. ws list machine annual rate of jobs without investment work banker salary croatia investment forum amassurance invertir forex sns investment management consultant blackrock salary investment delaware investments inc software nsi meshing cfd passbook for iphone postal made simple india sanum broker in v laos loan wikipedia world investment times forex investment property max combined investments jim guilfoil russell converter zhongheng investments easton investment holding juumei investment.

Betting florentia center nicosia bitcoins exchange rate uk us

Her florentia center nicosia betting interests involve hindi movie cricket betting site supervisor and a lecturer in the department of Speech Language on language and cognition, as Cyprus and as of she rehabilitation in neurologically impaired children Cyprus University of Technology. As of September she is disorders both in children and Cyprus. Sans Frontieres Florentia center nicosia betting Services Ltd. These are the things you a lecturer at European University. During these clinical training she interest in language deficits associated as well as children. Her expertise centers around neurological worked closely both with adults adults that affect language and. Florentia Centers were created through acquisition, development and organization; acquired we transmit from all over the world and the increasing demand for something unusual and unforgettable. More specifically she shows special albany ny calforex calgary hours emicool dubai investment park customer. Columbia Plaza Venue Centre. Times forex garraty workforce investment opportunity nicola barghi investments online.

Information Map View. Listing Category: BONBONIERE MANUFACTURERS & SHOPS. Location: NICOSIA. Address: Aigaleo 1, Strovolos , L/sia. Phone:​. Report; Print. Information Map View. Listing Category: MEDICAL. Location: NICOSIA. Address: 58A, Ifigenias Str. Akropoli, Nicosia. Phone: A & C EFTYCHIOU NICOSIA BETTING PALACE LIMITED to ΧΡΥΣΤΑΛΛΑ ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΥ who is General Partner of FLORENTIA & CHRYSTALLA CENTER.